Rights and claims for mobility in metropolitan areas

Metropolis Issue Paper on “Rights and claims for metropolitan mobility”

“By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons”

The analysis of the satisfaction of mobility needs enables different population groups to be active subjects in transport planning, towards a fairer distribution of resources.

When needs analyses are carried out in a coordinated manner throughout the metropolitan area, it is possible to target solutions according to the identification of the territories that suffer most from transport poverty and isolation. The analysis of the satisfaction of mobility needs enables different population groups to be active subjects in transport
planning, towards a fairer distribution of resources

Transport planning must analyze demand and understand the factors behind people’s travel behavior and decisions if it is to identify suitable policies and investments (transport and land-use measures, new infrastructures, public-transport pricing policies, emission-based taxing, etc.). Specifically, changes in choice of transport mode are produced by both quantitative factors the same time with the attributes of the alternative mode of transport (e.g., cost, travel time, comfort), the characteristics of the individual (such as income, age, social situation and size of household) and contextual attributes, such as the purpose of the trip.

The metropolitan sphere requires data collection on a more refined and infra-municipal scale since it is essential to take it to the scale closest to each person in order to detect inequalities and potential shortages of resources.
In turn, when these needs-based analyses are done in a coordinated fashion throughout the whole of the metropolitan area, it is possible to identify the territories that suffer from more transport poverty and unwanted isolation, prompting potential solutions to drill down on.

The metropolitan scale has also been shown to be the most suitable when it comes to redistributing the resources
inherent to the transport system (Davezies, 2007). Different public and private funding sources can be combined and aligned at the metropolitan scale and at the same time we can ensure both a balance between the different municipalities within the metropolitan space and services that are affordable to the public.

Needs, rights and claims around metropolitan mobility therefore take on a complex dimension for two main
reasons:

  1. The dispersion of activities essential to human life in the metropolitan area reinforce the trend of depending on
    mechanized transportation, whether by private vehicles or public or informal transport
  2. The application of restrictions on using private automobiles to enter central parts of the metropolitan area because they pollute creates tension between mechanized-transport dependent peripheral municipalities and activity-rich but highly polluted central areas. Traditional mobility, identified with transport networks that structurally integrate the metropolitan space, are presented as something that can disrupt the source of fragmentation of the metropolitan territory.
    A needs-based approach considers the concentration of transport poverty at the same time as the potential for
    changing travel behavior towards a more affordable and sustainable mobility with zero emissions. The measurement of transport-poverty concentration is applied to European, American, African and Asian metropolises alike. The metropolitan approach to mobility therefore clearly reveals not only potential conflicts and fragmentation of transport systems between territories but makes it possible to gauge the different needs between mobility
    for productive reasons and that motivated by reproductive or care reasons.
    In the case of functional metropolitan areas, mobility policies and measures
  3. When needs analyses are carried out in a coordinated manner throughout the metropolitan area, it is possible to target solutions according to the identification of the territories that suffer most from transport poverty and
    isolation are identified that can be more easily implemented through a metropolitan institution than through bilateral agreements between municipalities. This is where governance and the instruments to choose in order to organize mobility at a metropolitan level come into play:
    metropolitan institutions, fare integration, strategic mobility planning and land use. Mobility management at the metropolitan levels guarantees a territorially and demographically more acceptable transport justice, enabling the redistribution of resources for sustainable mobility actions free of transport poverty • Bolster participative mobility systems from metropolitan governance spaces, which are the most suitable to clearly indicate the parties responsible for the right to access necessary activities, who call for decent transportation. • Provide analysis instruments to ascertain people’s needs and aspirations and which enable data collection broken down by sex, patterns, reasons, means and modes of mobility. • Incentivise active local mobility and foster its integration with other modes of public transport (intermodality), facilitating the change of habits by focusing on users and non-users, before and after claims are made. • Focus on mobility of care, in other words, to contribute to the maintenance of life and wellbeing of the majority of the people, including vulnerable groups, and boosting public-transit frequency in off-peak hours. • Redirect transport planning to more global territorial scales like the metropolitan one and to more refined ones (infra-municipal) at the same time, in both cases preserving the needs-based approach. • Work in coordination with landuse policies to control the dispersion of housing or production activities, or excessive functional work concentration in a specific part of the metropolises. • Beware of interdependencies between residential spaces and those with a concentration of workplaces: the concentration of jobs in a single area far from where workers live, as well as an investment in corridor transport systems, hampers mobility solutions. • Police the land use/transport relationship, essential for covering mobility requirements: a plan to access decent housing requires a matching spatial anti-segregation mobility plan. • Organise learning communities around practical sustainable mobility measures and define the metropolitan mobility white paper to support urban areas in drafting their mobility, land-use and industrial-production strategies, with the aim of reducing emissions that harm human health (PM2.5) and the planet (CO2)
  4. Sustainable transport systems

Transport systems have a crucial role to play in SDG11: make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. Target 11.2 calls for strengthening efforts to provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all. It also underlines the need to pay special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons.

Future development in the real laboratory until 2025
Future development in the real laboratory until 2025 – ©WE DO communication

The Metropolis Issue Paper on “Rights and claims for metropolitan mobility” investigates on the requirements to achieve more inclusive mobility systems in metropolitan spaces. The report recommends among other things to provide analysis instruments to ascertain people’s needs and aspirations, and to incentivise active local mobility and foster its integration with other modes of public transport (inter-modality).

How the need for transport is addressed and managed influences on people’s access to the most important activities in their lives and therefore on their quality of life. In redirecting transport planning to more global territorial scales, it is possible to plan public transport networks with affordable, accessible and non-polluting mechanised mobility services between neighbourhoods and towards the peripheral municipalities of a metropolitan area.

Read more: Metropolis Issue Paper on Rights and claims for metropolitan mobility.

Below are five approaches to sustainable mobility planning implemented by local governements worldwide:

Transit Oriented Development Strategy, Quito, Ecuador

The city government of Quito has commenced a large infrastructure project based on a Transit Oriented Development (TOD) strategy and Land Value Capture (LVC) Plans. The project will maximize residential, business and recreational space within walking distance of public transportation and have a positive impact on the welfare of a large portion of the population. Together this will allow investment in economic growth, provide inclusive employment and safe housing, environmental benefits and simultaneously strengthening municipal resources. https://use.metropolis.org/case-studies/transit-oriented-development-in-quito

Move Urban, Berlin, Germany

The use of space-efficient mobility concepts when developing new residential quarters in cities can make a significant contribution to solving problems associated with urban expansion. The Urban Move project will develop and test concepts in a real-world laboratory in Berlin.  The intended outcome of the project is that these concepts will provide a serious alternative to traditional forms of private motorized transport, relieve pressure on existing transport infrastructure and achieve cost benefits without neglecting individuals’ mobility needs. https://use.metropolis.org/case-studies/move-urban

Intelligent Transport System, Moscow, Russia

The Intelligent Transport System allows for monitoring and regulating traffic, predicting traffic situations, and balancing road capacity with actual traffic flows. The system consists of 2048 CCTVs and 1402 still cameras installed at various places throughout the city. The video surveillance cameras are connected to a central control and monitoring room at the Moscow Traffic Management Centre, where a large digital creen displays real-time images of traffic movements and information on road conditions. Besides improving traffic regulation, implementing the ITS has also reduced air pollution and is helping to create a healthier city environment. https://use.metropolis.org/case-studies/intelligent-transport-system

Seoul Transport Operation and Information Service, Seoul, South Korea

The Transport Operation and Information Service (TOPIS) of the Seoul Metropolitan Government, the “control tower” for Seoul City’s transportation system, gathers and processes the city’s road traffic and subway train information real-time to enable the city to efficiently manage the interval between buses, relieve congestion and take timely action in case of an accident. The main objectives of the system are to attract more passengers to public transportation; to collect traffic information to help alleviate road congestion and respond more quickly and efficiently to unexpected situations; to analyze the accumulated information to devise scientific public transportation policies. https://use.metropolis.org/case-studies/topis-the-control-tower-for-seoul-city-s-transportation-system

Medellin’s Metrocable, Medellin, Colombia

In 2004, the City of Medellín opened the first cable propelled transit (CPT) line as part of the integrated urban development programme. The CPT lines directly connect to stations on the central metro line of Medellín and provide residents with increased opportunities to employment, education and social activities. Together with interventions to upgrade infrastructure and services for these neighbourhoods, the government is reducing the marginalization of these communities. Moreover, the project has provided for investments in a public library, kindergartens, public space and sports facilities. https://use.metropolis.org/case-studies/medellin-s-metrocable

For more programmes and policies related to sustainable mobility and transport search the use data base by topic – mobility and transport: https://use.metropolis.org/search