Shared mobility research

TCRP J-11/TASK 21 Research Analysis Shared Mobility and the Transformation of Public Transit

Key Findings:

  • The more people use shared modes, the more likely they are to use public transit, own fewer cars, and spend less on transportation overall.
  • Shared modes complement public transit, enhancing urban mobility.
  • Shared modes will continue to grow in significance, and public entities should identify opportunities to engage with them to ensure that benefits are widely and equitably shared.
  • The public sector and private operators are eager to collaborate to improve paratransit service using emerging approaches and technology.

TCRP Report 188 (National Academy of Sciences, 2016)

Shared Mobility and the Transformation of Public Transit


  • TCRP Research Report 188 concludes by presenting actions that transit agencies, transportation departments, and other local and regional agencies can take to promote useful cooperation between public and private mobility providers.
  • It also suggests regulatory enhancements, institutional realignments, and forms of public-private engagement that would allow innovation to flourish while providing mobility as safely, broadly, and equitably as possible.

TRB Webinar: Shared Mobility and the Transformation of Public Transit

TRB conducted a webinar on Thursday, September 29, 2016 from 2:00PM to 3:30PM ET that discusses research from Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 188: Shared Mobility and the Transformation of Public Transit. The ability to conveniently request, track, and pay for trips via mobile devices is transforming transportation mobility options. The report examines the relationship between public transportation, including paratransit and demand-responsive services, and shared modes, including bikesharing, carsharing, microtransit, and ridesourcing services provided by companies such as Uber and Lyft. This webinar focused on several of the report’s key findings. The presenters also discussed the opportunities and challenges for public transportation as they relate to technology-enabled mobility services and potential actions that public agencies may take to promote cooperation between public and private mobility providers.

Transit Center, 2016 Private Mobility, Public Interest

Key Findings Condensed:

  • Partner to reinforce transit’s strengths.
  • Leverage agency-controlled assets.
  • Plan for a streamlined user experience.
  • Be open to new ways of providing useful transit.

Selected Press Coverage from Transit Center:

  • Curbed, September 8 2016, “How cities can work with Uber and Lyft to create bigger, better transportation networks”
  • amNY, September 8 2016, “TransitCenter: NYC should work with Uber, Lyft, other private companies”
  • Fast Company, September 8 2016, “How Uber and Lyft can fill transit gaps in cities”
  • Austin Business Journal, September 8, 2016, “Austin studying how ridesharing could help public transit gain traction”
  • Next City, September 8, 2016, “Uber, Bike-Share and More Are Factors in Tomorrow’s Transit Agency”
  • WIRED, September 8, 2016, “3 tips for a hot, sexy, long-lasting relationship with a private mobility company
  • Streetsblog USA, September 9, 2016, “No, Uber’s Not Going to Replace Buses, But It Can Complement Them”
  • Slate, September 12, 2016, “Is Uber Killing the Public”


Dear Transit Tammy,

There’s this guy. Let’s call him Smyft. He says he wants to be with me, which: Yay! I’ve been the cat lady of public transit services for as long as I can remember. OK, I’m a little run down. My infrastructure is old, and I can be bit flaky, not showing up as frequently as I’ve promised. And then here comes this amazing guy …

Smyft has promised me a lot. He says he’ll help fill my gaps in service. I’m a small transit agency, and I don’t have the wherewithal to get moving at night. Smyft does! He’ll provide the labor. He’ll provide the vehicles. For a price, everyone in my city can have fast, reliable transit service, even people who don’t own a car.

But Tammy, I’ve heard the horror stories. Private mobility guys like Smyft, his brother, SUber, and his cousin, SCar2Go, promise a lot, but they’re not always into sharing—like, data sharing. My job is to help everyone get around, but his is to make money. Tammy, how do I make sure I’m not being used?

– (Nervously) Moving Toward Ardor

Dear MTA,

Worry not. You’re not the only (aging, struggling) lady with several sexy new options. It’s scary, but transit agencies across the country are taking the leap. In March, par exemple, Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority in Florida started covering half the cost of a local Uber—er, SUber—ride, up to $3 per trip. Not too expensive, right? Even little agency like you could handle that kind of low-stakes partnership.

But you don’t want to get your heart broken. You’re right to be nervous, because companies like Smyft can be after the affluent consumers who can afford smartphones and a travel splurge. And they can get competitive, too. Some research shows that people sometimes choose between transit and rideshare—and transit loses.

But the costs of waiting this one out are big. Just today, in fact, the public transit research and advocacy group TransitCenter released a report for girls (and guys) in exactly your situation. Its main message: Suitors like Smyft may be almost too hot to believe, but they can be great potential partners, ready for real commitment.

So here’s a very quick guide to making sure you, sweet MTA, don’t get hurt.

1. Relax

When you’re approached—or approaching!—a ride-share, ride-hail, or bikeshare company, think of it as a big opportunity. Let’s face it, MTA. Sometimes you’re a stick in the mud. It takes a long time to set up your contracts, and you’re bound by regulations that might not make sense anymore. “We can’t maintain this type of process in our procurement and stay nimble,” says Lisa Walton, CTO at the San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency. Think of Smyft’s overtures as an excuse to look at your internal rules and decide if they’re meant for this century.

2. Fight for Your Needs

Stick up for yourself, lady! Lean in! You might have a different priorities than your new beau. He’s interested in proprietary secrets; you need to know how many people are traveling downtown, and when. He’s into idling in your bike lanes and taking up all your parking spots; you have other friends who need a bit of parking time, too. Luckily, you have some leverage. The TransitCenter report puts it this way:Who run the world/ Girls.”

Wait, no—sorry. Actually what it said is, “The public sector controls valuable assets, like parking spaces and street right-of-way, that can be used to negotiate for contracted services, access to data or equitable geographic coverage, for example.” You need open data to make sure this relationship is working, and equitable service for everyone in your area because, well, that’s your job. You have a lot of power, so trade on what you’ve got.

3. Experiment a Little

Big buses and long trains are great, and they’ve still got it going on. But it might be that a smaller vehicle, or one that serves on demand, is a better fit for afternoons and late nights, when there are fewer commuters. Maybe what works for your transit agency isn’t a great fit for big city down the road. There are many models, and room to try them all.

Just remember to set boundaries. “If municipal governments and transit agencies are proactive about settings the terms of these relationships,” says Zak Accuardi, a TransitCenter program analyst, “they can put the protections in place that can avoid pitfalls”—like tussles with your friends the unions, or putting people in cars with unsafe drivers. Stay true to you.

You got this, MTA. Be brave.

Could London Set Up A Nonprofit, Cooperative Alternative To Uber?  on Fast Company Sep 2017

As the city prepares to evict the ride-hailing company from its streets, there are questions about what its drivers and riders will do next. The solution might be simple: Start your own company.

Could London Set Up A Nonprofit, Cooperative Alternative To Uber?
“What are we going to do with all these drivers and customers who are looking for the next option?” [Photo: Biel Morro/Unsplash]

London recently dealt another blow to Uber’s plans to take over the world. Saying the ride-hailing giant had failed to abide by public safety rules governing private cab companies, regulators in the U.K. capital said the company would lose its “license to operate” at the end of September.

The decision hit hard for 40,000 fare-earning Uber drivers and its 3.5 million customers, many of whom undeniably like the service. Uber’s cars fill a void in London because its iconic black cabs are expensive (compared to New York’s yellow cabs, particularly) and are far from ubiquitous outside central areas. Already more than 800,000 people have signed a petition asking Transport for London (TfL), the regulator, to overturn the decision (we’re assuming these people are bona fide residents of Chiswick and Islington and not fictitious astroturfers).

But, instead of relying on Uber and other venture capital-backed startups, London has another option if it wants it. It could set up–or encourage–a nonprofit ride service like the one started by tech entrepreneurs in Austin. RideAustin, now 15 months old, has proved that Uber’s proposition isn’t unique and that cities needn’t be cowed into accepting the writ of outside corporations. The homegrown alternative offers something as good (according to many users), but in a way that’s more homely and, dare we say it, equitable.

“TfL had to protect its regulatory framework but, in fact, it put these precarious workers in an even more precarious state.” [Photo: albertobrian/iStock]


The New Economics Foundation, a London-based think tank focused on more cooperative economic models, has been campaigning for “Khan’s Cars” in London–a mutually owned alternative to Uber. The name echoes “Boris Bikes” (the colloquial name for the city’s successful bike-share system championed by former mayor Boris Johnson) and is meant as a challenge to the current mayor Sadiq Khan, says Duncan McCann, a researcher at NEF.  The idea is to re-employ the drivers who now stand to lose some of their livelihoods, but on more favorable terms–for both drivers and the city–than what Uber is offering.

“TfL had to protect its regulatory framework, but, in fact, it put these precarious workers in an even more precarious state,” says McCann in an interview with Fast Company. “What are we going to do with all these drivers and customers who are looking for the next option? We want a potential way forward that’s different from having more privately owned driving companies, or just letting Uber back in.”

McCann proposes a cooperative that would be owned by its drivers, and possibly also by its members. It would most likely be set up as an independent, nonprofit company, with its shares distributed based on participation: The more drivers or users become involved, the more shares they would be able to accumulate. McCann is trying to build momentum for the idea by organizing drivers and raising capital to build an app. NEF has already worked with several self-organized groups, including Yamuv, a car service app from the north of England.

“That initial investment, though certainly something we need to factor in, is not a limiting factor anymore. There are so many existing applications out there as well, so we might be able to license a cheaper model,” McCann says. Yamuv’s app, though not as robust as Uber, was commissioned from Indian developers for about $55,000.

“It’s about doing right by the drivers, ensuring they have a fair wage, and doing right by the community.” [Photo: Maciej Noskowski/iStock]


The idea behind the Khan Car–that a city could create its own service independent of Silicon Valley giants–is less implausible than you may think: The successes and failures of RideAustin, an app built when Uber and Lyft chose to leave the city a few years ago, can serve as a model for how London and other cities could think about a post-Uber future that still gives people the convenience of app-based ride hailing.

Uber and Lyft exited the Austin market in May 2016 after losing a fight with city regulators who demanded that it fingerprint drivers and hand over operational data. The companies said the requirements hurt their business model and they spent $8 million funding Ordinance 1, a ballot measure that would have overturned the regulations. When residents overwhemlingly rejected the measure, the companies pulled out of the city two days later, opening the way for RideAustin. It launched its app just four weeks later (after many sleepless nights according to Bobbi Kommineni, RideAustin’s vice-president of strategic programs and operations). The cost to build was between $5 million and $10 million, she says, including in-kind contributions from the local tech community.

Unlike Uber and Lyft, which charge drivers commissions of 25%, RideAustin takes no commission. Drivers get 100% of fares, though riders do have to pay $2 booking fees to cover the company’s operating costs. Since last June, RideAustin has orchestrated 2.25 million rides, Kommineni says, though its numbers have fallen hard this summer as Uber and Lyft have come back into the picture, after the Texas legislature introduced legislation that superseded the city’s ordinances, allowing the companies to return over Memorial Day weekend.

Kommineni says Uber and Lyft have offered discounts of up to 50%, causing up to two-thirds of RideAustin’s former customer base to jump ship. But she reckons the nonprofit can bottom out at about 20% of the market in the long run. Enough Austinites want to keep Austin “weird”–that is, serviced by locally owned companies–she argues. RideAustin has been forced to cut its prices and reduce its staff since its commercial competitors returned to the market.

“There’s definitely a part of our customer base who are price-sensitive, particularly students, who will switch to the other services,” she says (as well as Uber and Lyft, Fasten is another major competitor). “But we also have a core base that wants to use us versus a big corporation. It’s about doing right by the drivers, ensuring they have a fair wage, and doing right by the community.”

RideAustin has donated $275,000 to local charities and provides free rides for doctor visits for customers in need. It also abides by the original city regulations (including fingerprinting) and makes all its operational data public (on Uber and Lyft, by contrast, have tended to keep their data close to their chests (though Uber has released some on Uber Movement, its site for urban planners).

Kommineni argues that Uber and Lyft are artificially boosted by venture capital and that its discounts may not be sustainable. Indeed, there are plenty of analysts who reckon that ride hailing, despite its popularity among riders, may not in fact be a great long-term business (Uber has run up huge losses as it’s expanded around the globe). One analysis showed that passenger fares covered only 41% of Uber’s costs in the financial year to September 2015; the rest was subsidized by venture capital.

“I think we might see municipally owned systems with the rise of AVs.” [Photo: Bim/iStock]Arun Sundararajan, a professor at NYU and author of The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism, argues that “platform cooperatives” may be good options for cities. Though co-ops can have coordination and consistency problems, they tend to be fairer to their participants and retain value within their networks. There are plenty of examples of successful cooperatives in other industries: New York is home to Cooperative Home Care Associates, a 2,000-person, $60 million home health aid company run by its workers.Sundararajan believes ride hailing ultimately will be a low-margin, high-volume business, with low barriers to entry. The cost of building an app is coming down all the time, he says, making defending a market position harder and harder for Uber and Lyft and giving more opportunities for workers who want to work for themselves. In fact, there are even open-source versions available today, and decentralized blockchain-based networks are possibilities for the future.

“There could be a political advantage for Sadiq Khan in having the first large-scale driver-owned-and-operated ride-hailing platform. I see that as a significant benefit,” Sundararajan says.

Brooks Rainwater, who oversees research at the National League of Cities, thinks it’s unlikely U.S. cities will embrace the cooperative model–for now. Though its surveys show that officials have significant public safety concerns about the sharing economy, he doubts they will want to compete with privately funded rivals.

“There are some cities that would like to take back some power from the ride-hailing companies. But in other places , where they don’t have strong taxi cab systems, they see Uber and Lyft providing services that constituents really want,” he says.

As we move to an era of autonomous vehicles (AVs) that could change. “I think we might see municipally owned systems with the rise of AVs. Once you get to a point where the rolling stock is more expensive than conventional vehicles, that lends itself to fleet management. It opens the door to a more transit-like environment where you see public-private partnerships forming more strongly,” he says.