US sees first combustion vehicle phase out legislation

Washington’s House Bill 2525 would require that all new vehicles run on electricity by 2030, effectively banning gasoline-powered cars and trucks. The bill, which I read about in E&E News, did not pass out of committee, so it’s almost certainly not going to become law.

Below is model legislation designed around a 2025 phase out date.

AN ACT Relating to the electrification of transportation; adding new sections to chapter ___ of Revised Code, adding a new section to chapter _____, and creating a new section.



Sec. 1. (1) The legislature finds that:

(a) Electric vehicles are being widely deployed in a broad array of makes and models;

(b) Electric vehicles, battery technology, and grid technology are already sufficiently advanced for the gradual transition to a fully electric fleet of passenger vehicles;

(c) The State is capable of developing its abundant and inexpensive sources of electrical energy to supply the energy needed for a gradual transition to a fully electric fleet of passenger vehicles;

(d) The transition to electric vehicles would spur job creation and economic development based on new technologies and would stem the outflow of billions of dollars from State citizens to foreign oil providers and instead keep those dollars local;

(e) The transition to electric vehicles would save State citizens billions of dollars in fuel and vehicle maintenance costs each year, which savings could then flow into the local economy;

(f) The transition to electric vehicles could benefit underserved communities by providing mobility options that have lower lifecycle costs and reduced emissions that address higher levels of pollution, and by enabling greater utilization of efficiency and low-income programs offered by utilities;

(g) The transition to electric vehicles would reduce the dripping of toxic liquids on State roadways and save funds spent on stormwater pollution mitigation;

(h) The transition to electric vehicles would substantially reduce volumes of petroleum and motor oil released from motor vehicles into waterways, reducing a significant threat to stream and other water-dependent life;

(i) The transition to electric vehicles would substantially reduce volumes of petroleum and motor oil released at fueling stations, thereby reducing the escape of toxic vapors during fueling and also reducing soil and water contamination, both of which pose threats to health and safety, especially in the vicinity of fueling stations;

(j) The transition to electric vehicles would substantially reduce noise pollution, especially in enclosed areas such as parking garages and on busy roads, and would increase property values along busy roads and highways;

(k) Electric vehicles benefit from a network effect, whereby the utility of drivers’ electric vehicles increases as more electric vehicles come onto the roads, including increased utilization of utility generating assets and stronger market signals to charging station developers;

(l) For all State citizens to fully enjoy the benefits of an electrified transportation system, electric vehicles must become the dominant mode of transportation in the state; and

(m) Exercising a leadership role in the deployment of electric vehicles will benefit State’s economy, communities, technology centers, financial institutions, and businesses.

(2) It is the intent of the legislature that the state transportation commission develop a plan and rules to ensure that all 2025 model year and later passenger and light duty vehicles sold or registered in the State be electric, in a manner that minimizes costs and maximizes benefits for State’s economy, improves and modernizes State’s energy infrastructure, and maintains electric system reliability.

NEW SECTION. Sec. 2. The definitions in the section apply throughout sections 3 through 5 of this act unless the context clearly requires otherwise.

(1) “2025 requirement” refers to the requirement that all privately owned and publicly owned passenger and light duty vehicles of model year 2025 or later sold or registered in the State be electric vehicles.

(2) “Electric vehicle” means a vehicle that uses chemical energy stored in rechargeable battery packs, and electric motors and motor controllers instead of internal combustion engines for propulsion. “Electric vehicle” includes hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles, which are vehicles that use a fuel cell, instead of a battery, or in combination with a battery or supercapacitor, to power their on-board electric motor.

(3) “Passenger and light duty vehicles” are on road motor vehicles with a scale weight of up to ten thousand pounds. “Passenger and light duty vehicles” do not include emergency services vehicles.

(4) “Transition period” refers to the period beginning January 1, 2021.

NEW SECTION. Sec. 3. (1) On or before September 1, 2021, the commission shall complete a scoping plan for achieving the 2025 requirement.

(2) In developing the scoping plan, the commission shall consult with all state agencies with jurisdiction over passenger and light duty vehicles, including the department of public health and environment, the department of licensing, the department of transportation, and clean air agencies.

(3) In developing the scoping plan, the commission may assume that the technology available through 2025 is substantially similar to the state of the art of vehicle technology as it exists at the time of the writing of the plan. In developing its cost-analysis framework, the commission may rely on reasonable cost assumptions regarding the cost of implementing electric vehicle technology based on anticipated economies of scale, technology learning curves, and other generally accepted cost estimating techniques.

(4) The scoping plan must include, without limitation, the following elements with regard to the 2030 requirement:

(a) Predicted number of new and used electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles registered in State each year during the transition period;

(b) Predicted number, type, year of installation, and location profile of electric vehicle fueling stations needed to provide prompt, efficient, and cost-effective fueling of electric vehicles during the transition period, and predicted yearly investments required to build out such fueling stations;

(c) An analysis of the electrical generation, transmission, and distribution upgrades and build-out required to provide prompt and efficient fueling of electric vehicles in State during the transition period, and predicted yearly and aggregate investment required to implement said upgrades;

(d) An analysis of the purchase price differential of new electric vehicles and internal combustion engine passenger and light duty vehicles during the transition period;

(e) An analysis of the predicted total cost of ownership of electric vehicles and internal combustion engine passenger and light duty vehicles during the transition period;

(f) An analysis of yearly job gains and losses during the transition period that would result from the 2025 requirement;

(g) An analysis of the effect of the 2025 requirement during the transition period on state transportation revenues, and recommendations as to alternative sources of revenues to replace gas tax revenues;

(h) Predicted yearly decrease in gasoline and diesel sales in state resulting from the implementation of the 2025 requirement, and the resulting dollars retained in state that would have otherwise been expended elsewhere;

(i) Analysis of impacts of the 2025 requirement on equity for low-income persons, and strategies for maximizing equity in implementation of the 2025 requirement;

(j) Assessment of potential impacts from developments in autonomous and shared services that would impact passenger vehicle operations and subsequent charging infrastructure deployment; and

(k) Recommendations for the state in effective coordination with neighboring (state) jurisdictions to ensure infrastructure investments are coordinated, sufficient, and accessible to ensure an enduring, cost-effective, and adaptive transition.

(5) In developing the scoping plan, the commission shall consider all relevant information pertaining to vehicle electrification programs in other states, localities, and nations.

(6) The commission shall analyze the potential costs and potential economic and noneconomic benefits to State’s economy of implementing the 2025 requirement, using the best available scientific and economic models.

(7) The commission shall conduct a series of public workshops to provide interested parties an opportunity to comment on the scoping plan, especially including disadvantaged and low-income communities, and communities of color.

(8) The commission shall update its scoping plan for achieving the 2025 requirement in each of the years prior.

(9) The commission shall submit copies of its 2022 scoping plan ensuing annual updates to the scoping plan, to the standing committees of the legislature with jurisdiction over transportation issues, consistent state revised code.

NEW SECTION. Sec. 4. (1) On or before January 1, 2022, the commission, in coordination with appropriate state agencies, shall adopt rules, consistent with the scoping plan created pursuant to section 3 of this act, that require that all passenger and light duty vehicles of model year 2025 or later sold or registered in state be electric vehicles.

(2) In adopting regulations pursuant to this section, in furtherance of achieving the 2025 requirement for ensuring new vehicles sold in the state are electric vehicles, the commission shall:

(a) Design the regulations in a manner that maximizes equity and total benefits to the state of state, while minimizing costs and risks;

(b) Minimize the administrative burden of implementing and complying with these regulations;

(c) Rely upon the best available economic and scientific information and its assessment of existing and projected technological capabilities when adopting the regulations required by this section;

(d) Consult with the utilities and transportation commission, investor-owned utilities, public utility districts, and municipal utilities in the development of the regulations insofar as they affect electricity providers in order to minimize duplicative or inconsistent regulatory requirements; and

(e) Revise rules adopted pursuant to this section and adopt8additional rules to accelerate or otherwise facilitate the intent of this chapter.

NEW SECTION. Sec. 5. The commission shall:

(1) By no later than August 31, 2020, convene an advisory committee, of at least nine members, appointed by a majority vote of the commission, to advise it in developing the scoping plan and inform the rule-making process. The advisory committee shall be composed of representatives from communities in the state who are likely to experience the greatest benefits or disadvantages as a result of this act including, but not limited to, rural communities, communities of color, and low-income communities;

(2) Appoint the advisory committee members from nominations received from community groups and other stakeholders;

(3) Appoint an economic and technology advancement advisory committee to advise it on activities that will facilitate investment in and implementation of technological research and development opportunities including, but not limited to, identifying new technologies, research, demonstration projects, funding opportunities, developing state, national, and international partnerships and technology transfer opportunities, and identifying and assessing research and advanced technology investment and incentive opportunities that will assist in shifting to electric vehicles. This committee may also advise the commission on state, regional, national, and international economic and technological developments related to electric vehicles;

(4) Consult with other states, the federal government, and other34nations to identify the most effective strategies and methods to provide adequate electric fueling infrastructure and meet other needs created by the conversion to electric vehicles; and

(5) Use the advisory committee recommendations and consultations38with other entities in developing the scoping plan and adopting rules that are consistent with the purposes of sections 3 and 4 of this act.

NEW SECTION. Sec. 6. A new section is added to chapter 46.013RCW to read as follows:

The department may not license vehicles that are not in compliance with section 4 of this act and implementing rules adopted6by the transportation commission.

NEW SECTION. Sec. 7. Sections 2 through 5 of this act are each added to chapter 47.01 RCW.

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