Help for DOTs around VMT reduction, project analysis, and potential mitigation of VMT reduction (Caltrans resources)

ensure that new development projects are built in a way that allows people to drive less. The goal is more communities where we can travel shorter distances during our daily routines, spending less time behind the wheel and more time doing the things we love. How this will make our state more connected and healthier for all.

New metrics and new considerations are required to evaluate Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT). Reduction and mitigation resources are shown below. They are intended as useful tools and links for the process of identifying potential VMT-reducing measures. More citations will be added as they become available.

Key Video Resources

Key Resources on SB 743: Studies, Reports, Briefs, and Tools

This resource page will be updated as new resources become available. Last updated: June 22, 2020

Transportation Metrics: Disadvantages of LOS and Auto Delay

Environmental, Health, Fiscal Benefits of VMT Reduction

VMT Reduction Strategies

Induced VMT from Highway Capacity

Tools to measure VMT and Access to Destinations

Housing Affordability and VMT

VMT Reduction in Rural Areas

Roadway Pricing

Traffic Safety

Automated Vehicles and VMT

Address any questions regarding the key resources to

As the Technical Advisory on Evaluating Transportation Impacts in CEQA states, “When a lead
agency identifies a significant impact [in an environmental document], it must identify feasible
mitigation measures that could avoid or substantially reduce that impact. (Pub. Resources
Code, § 21002.1, subd. (a).) Additionally, CEQA requires that an environmental impact report
identify feasible alternatives that could avoid or substantially reduce a project’s significant
environmental impacts.”

  1. Regulations, Policy and Guidance
    a. 2019 CEQA Statutes and Guidelines
    b. OPR Transportation Impacts Page
    c. CARB 2017 Scoping Plan-Identified VMT Reductions and Relationship to State Climate
    d. Governor’s Executive Order N-19-19
  2. Tools
    a. Evaluation of Sketch-Level VMT Quantification Tools (Lee et al., 2017)
    b. NCST Smart Growth Trip-Generation Adjustment Tool
  3. Presentations
    a. Webinar: Quantifying Vehicle Miles Traveled
    b. SANDAG Webinar: A Shift to VMT Mitigating Transportation Impact
    c. Training Course: Shifting from Maintaining LOS to Reducing VMT: Case Studies of
    Analysis and Mitigation for Implementing SB 743
  4. Local and Regional resources
    a. City of San Jose VMT metric
    b. LA DOT Modernizing Transportation management
    c. SANDAG TDM Planning Resources
    d. SCAG TDM Strategic Plan
    e. San Francisco County Transportation Authority TDM Evaluation Tool
    f. SB 743 Vehicle Miles Traveled Implementation (Nevada County Transportation
    g. Western Riverside COG SB 743 Implementation Pathway and Screening Tool
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  5. Research –final reports, white papers, and articles for various subject areas
    • Policy
    • Cutting Greenhouse Gas Emissions is Only the Beginning: A Literature Review of
    the Co-Benefits of Reducing Vehicle Miles Traveled (Fang; Volker, 2017)
    • A Framework for Projecting the Potential Statewide Vehicle Miles Traveled
    (VMT) Reduction from State-Level Strategies in California (Handy; Boarnet, 2016)
    • Leaving level-of-service behind: The implications of a shift to VMT impact metrics
    (Lee; Handy, 2018)
    • Measuring Incremental SB743 Progress: Accounting for Project Contributions
    Towards Reducing VMT Under California’s Senate Bill 743 (Ferrell, 2019)
    • Policy brief: Increasing Highway Capacity Unlikely to Relieve Traffic Congestion
    (Handy, 2015)
    • Synthesis
    • Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Measures: A Resource for Local
    Government to Assess Emission Reductions from Greenhouse Gas Mitigation
    Measures (California Air Pollution Control Officer’s Association, 2010)
    • State-Level Strategies for Reducing Vehicle Miles of Travel (Byars et al., 2017)
    • VMT Mitigation Banks
    • Implementing SB 743: An Analysis of Vehicle Miles Traveled Banking and
    Exchange Frameworks (Elkind et al., 2019)
    • VMT Mitigation Through Banks and Exchanges: Understanding New Mitigation
    Approaches (Fehr and Peers)
    • VMT Reduction Measures
    • Active Transportation
    • Heightening Walking above its Pedestrian Status: Walking and Travel
    Behavior in California (Blumenberg, et al. 2016)
    • High Impact Prioritization of Bike Share Program Investment to Improve
    Underserved Communities’ Access to Jobs and Essential Services (Qian,
    Niemier, 2016)
    • Making Bicycling Comfortable: Identifying Minimum Infrastructure Needs
    by Population Segment using a Video Survey ( Handy; Fitch, 2019)
    • An Overview of System Design Issues Related to Safety Aspects of Bicycle
    Infrastructure (Botha, 2016)
    • Toward Accurate and Valid Estimates of Greenhouse Gas Reductions
    from Bikeway Projects (Matute et al., 2016)
    • Forecast and Analysis
    • From LOS to VMT, VHT and beyond through data fusion: application to
    integrated corridor management (Bayen et al., 2016)
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    March 2020
    • Incorporating Long-Distance Travel into Transportation Planning in the
    United States (Hall, 2018)
    • Long Distance Travel in the California Household Travel Survey (CHTS)
    and Social Media Augmentation (Goulias; Janowicz, 2017)
    • Methodologies Used to Estimate and Forecast Vehicle Miles Traveled
    (VMT) (Williams et al., 2017)
    • Future Mobility
    • Automated Vehicle Scenarios: Simulation of System-Level Travel Effects
    Using Agent-Based Demand and Supply Models in the San Francisco Bay
    Area (Rodier, 2018)
    • Congestion Pricing in a World of Self-driving vehicles: an Analysis of
    Different Strategies in Alternative Future Scenarios (Simoni et al., 2018)
    • The Environmental Effects of New Mobility Services (Rodier, 2017)
    • Estimation of Program Effects from Cross-Sectional Observational Surveys
    – Case Studies of the Effect on Travel Behavior of the Adoption of (i)
    Future Mobility Options like Carsharing, and (ii) Telecommuting (Mishra,
    • Exploring the Relationships Among Travel Multimodality, Driving
    Behavior, Use of Ridehailing and Energy Consumption (Circella; Lee;
    Alemi, 2019)
    • A Framework for Integrating Transportation Into Smart Cities (Shaheen et
    al., 2019)
    • Partnerships between Ridehailing Companies and Public Transit Agencies:
    An Exploration of Inter-agency Learning about Pilot Programs (Pike;
    Kazemian, 2019)
    • Land Use/ Infill
    • Affordable Housing Trip Generation Strategies and Rates (Clifton et al.
    • Housing and Mobility Toolkit for San Mateo County (Alexander et al.,
    • Institutional Response to Transit Oriented Development in the Los
    Angeles Metropolitan Area: Understanding Local Differences Through the
    Prism of Density, Diversity, and Design (Banerjee; Bahl, 2018)
    • The Potential for Shared Use Mobility in Affordable Housing Complexes in
    Rural California (Pike; Rodier; Martinez, 2017)
    • Tracking Land Use Changes that Support Sustainable Mobility (Sciara,
    • The Effect of State and Federal Housing Policies on Vehicle Miles of Travel
    (Niemier; Palm, 2017)
    • Smart Growth Trip Generation (Handy, 2013)
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    March 2020
    • Urban Spatial Structure and the Potential for VMT Reduction (Boarnet,
    • Parking
    • Getting the Prices Right: An Evaluation of Pricing Parking by Demand in
    San Francisco (Pierce; Shoup, 2013)
    • Parking prices and the decision to drive to work: Evidence from California
    (Khordagui, 2019)
    • Sensors and the City: Urban Challenges for Parking Occupancy Detection
    and Pricing (Dey et al., 2018)
    • Pricing
    • Assessing the net overall distributive effect of a congestion charge
    (Anable; Goodwin, 2018)
    • Congestion Pricing in a World of Self-driving vehicles: an Analysis of
    Different Strategies in Alternative Future Scenarios (Simoni et al., 2018)
    • Equity Effects of Congestion Charges: An Exploratory Analysis with
    MATSim (Frietas et al., 2017)
    • Influencing Factors in Congestion Pricing Acceptability: A Literature
    Review (Selmoune et al. 2019)
    • The potential of road pricing schemes to reduce carbon emissions
    (Cavallaro et al., 2018)
    • Reducing traffic externalities by multiple-cordon pricing (Tsai; Lu, 2018)
    • Regulating dynamic congestion externalities with tradable credit
    schemes: Does a unique equilibrium exist? (Bao et al., 2019)
    • White Paper: Social Equity Impacts of Congestion Management Strategies
    (Shaheen et al., 2019)
    • Zone Pricing in Theory and Practice (Daganzo, 2016)
    • Transportation Demand Management
    • Effectiveness of Land Use and Demand Strategies in Reducing VMT and
    GHG Emissions – Passenger (Salon, 2015)
    • Exploring the Relationship between Travel Demand and Economic
    Growth (FHWA, 2012)
    • Transit
    • Next-Generation Transit System Design Under Revolution of Shared Mobility
    (Fan, 2018)
    • Potential Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions from Optimizing Urban
    Transit Networks (Madanat; Horvath, 2016)
    • The Potential for Using Loyalty Rewards and Incentives Programs to
    Encourage Transit Ridership and Regional Transportation and Land Use
    Integration (Ferrell, 2019)
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    March 2020
  6. Links to other sites
    • CALCOG Policy Tracker
    • MJ Bradley and Associates Transportation Policy Toolkit
    • SB
    • Victoria Transport Policy Institute – TDM Encyclopedia