Exxon spread doubt through weekly public advertorials in the New York Times while internal documents confirmed knowledge that climate change was real

Exxon spent $33 million to sow doubt and denial about the seriousness of global warming. Exxon honed the tobacco industry’s playbook with even more advanced public relations, advertising and lobbying muscle.  Corporate documents from the late 1970s stating unequivocally “there is no doubt” that CO2 from the burning of fossil fuels was a growing “problem” well understood within the company, but didn’t share that information with shareholders or the public.

This post also includes the earlier LA Times article at the bottom.  The August 2017 Harvard article overview and excerpt are at the top.

Geoffrey Supran1 and Naomi Oreskes. Assessing ExxonMobil’s climate change communications (1977–2014)Published 23 August 2017 Environmental Research LettersVolume 12Number 8

  • 83% of peer-reviewed papers and 80% of internal documents acknowledge that climate change is real and human-caused, yet only 12% of advertorials do so, with 81% instead expressing doubt.
  • ExxonMobil contributed to advancing climate science—by way of its scientists’ academic publications—but promoted doubt about it in advertorials

Supran and Oreskes paper assesses whether ExxonMobil Corporation has in the past misled the general public about climate change.  From their abstract:

We present an empirical document-by-document textual content analysis and comparison of 187 climate change communications from ExxonMobil, including peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed publications, internal company documents, and paid, editorial-style advertisements (‘advertorials’) in The New York Times. We examine whether these communications sent consistent messages about the state of climate science and its implications—specifically, we compare their positions on climate change as real, human-caused, serious, and solvable. In all four cases, we find that as documents become more publicly accessible, they increasingly communicate doubt. This discrepancy is most pronounced between advertorials and all other documents. For example, accounting for expressions of reasonable doubt, 83% of Exxon’s peer-reviewed papers and 80% of internal documents acknowledge that climate change is real and human-caused, yet only 12% of advertorials do so, with 81% instead expressing doubt. We conclude that ExxonMobil contributed to advancing climate science—by way of its scientists’ academic publications—but promoted doubt about it in advertorials. Given this discrepancy, we conclude that ExxonMobil misled the public.

Our content analysis also examines ExxonMobil’s discussion of the risks of stranded fossil fuel assets. We find the topic discussed and sometimes quantified in 24 documents of various types, but absent from advertorials. Finally, based on the available documents, we outline ExxonMobil’s strategic approach to climate change research and communication, which helps to contextualize our findings.

Excerpted from their study:

On the question of whether ExxonMobil misled non-scientific audiences about climate science, our analysis supports the conclusion that it did. This conclusion is based on three factors: 1) discrepancies in AGW communications between document categories; 2) imbalance in impact of different document categories; and 3) factual mispresentations in some advertorials.

First, we have shown that there is a discrepancy between what different document categories say, and particularly what they emphasize, about AGW as real, human-caused, serious, and solvable. This discrepancy grows with the public accessibility of documents, and is greatest between advertorials and the other documents.

Second, in public, ExxonMobil contributed quietly to the science and loudly to raising doubts about it. ExxonMobil’s peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed publications have been cited an average (median (mean)) of 21(60) and 2(9) times, respectively, suggesting an average readership of tens to hundreds3. Most texts are highly technical, intellectually inaccessible for laypersons, and of little interest to the general public or policymakers. Most scientific journals and conference proceedings are only circulated to academic libraries and require a paid subscription, making them physically inaccessible for the general public, too. Obtaining academic documents for this study, for example, required access to libraries at Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology and international interlibrary loans. By contrast, Mobil/ExxonMobil bought AGW advertorials in the NYT specifically to allow ‘the public to know where we stand’ [137]. Readerships were in the millions [29]. The company took out an advertorial every Thursday between 1972 and 2001 [29]. They paid a discounted price of roughly $31 000 (2016 USD) per advertorial and bought one-quarter of all advertorials on the Op-Ed page, ‘towering over the other sponsors’ according to reviews of Mobil’s advertorials by Brown, Waltzer, and Waltzer [1929]. ‘After [experimentally] examining the effects of an actual ExxonMobil advertorial that appeared on the pages of The New York Times,’ Cooper and Nownes observed ‘that advertorials substantially affect levels of individual issue salience.…’ [20]

Third, ExxonMobil’s advertorials included several instances of explicit factual misrepresentation. As discussed in section 3.1.5, an ExxonMobil advertorial in 2000 directly contradicted the IPCC and presented ‘very misleading’ data, according to the scientist who produced the data [105106]. Another advertorial, in 1996, claimed that ‘greenhouse-gas emissions, which have a warming effect, are offset by another combustion product–particulates–which leads to cooling’ [138]. In 1985, ExxonMobil scientists had reported being ‘not very convinc[ed]’ by the argument that ‘aerosol particulates…compensat[e] for, and may even overwhelm, the fossil-fuel CO2 greenhouse warming’ [103]. By 1995, the IPCC had rejected it [71].

We acknowledge that textual analysis is inherently subjective: words have meaning in context. Particular coding assignments may therefore be debatable, depending on how the meaning and context of individual quotations and figures are interpreted. However, the intercoder reliability and agreement of our content analyses are consistently high (section S1.7, supplementary information). While one might disagree about the interpretation of specific words, the overall trends between document categories are clear (table S3, supplementary information).

In figure 3, we summarize ExxonMobil’s strategic approach to AGW research and communication. Internal documents show that by the early 1980s, ExxonMobil scientists and managers were sufficiently informed about climate science and its prevailing uncertainties to identify AGW as a potential threat to its business interests. This awareness apparently came from a combination of prior research and expert advice. For example, in 1979 and 1980, university researcher Andrew Callegari co-authored two peer-reviewed articles acknowledging that ‘the climatic implications of fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions have been recognized for some time’ [139140]. The authors articulated the ‘climatically huge’ temperature increases and ecological impacts that would result ‘if a significant fraction of the fossil fuel reserve is burned’ (section S5, supplementary information). In 1980, Callegari joined Exxon, and the next year took over its CO2 research efforts [141]. His papers were frequently cited in company publications [97142144].

Figure 3.

Figure 3. Summary of ExxonMobil’s strategic approach to AGW communication. Inside lobbying and outside lobbying are two classes of special interest group spending: inside lobbying is direct access to and contact with those who make and implement public policy, whereas outside lobbying aims to bring the views of the special interest and the pressure of public opinion to bear on decision makers [192129]. Advertorials are one technique of outside lobbying. Quotation sources: ‘public relations value’ [145], ‘opinion leaders’ [146], ’emphasize the uncertainty’ [147].

 Standard image High-resolution image Export PowerPoint slide

Around this time, ExxonMobil set up two parallel initiatives: climate science research, and a complimentary public relations campaign (left and right branches of figure 3). According to a 1978 ‘Request for a credible scientific team,’ these initiatives targeted four audiences: the scientific community, government, Exxon management, and the general public and policymakers [145].

4.1. Scientific community

From approximately 1979 to 1982, the Exxon Research and Engineering (ER&E) Company pursued three major AGW research projects. ExxonMobil’s 2015 statement that two of the projects ‘had nothing to do with CO2 emissions’ [148] is contradicted by internal documents [111149150]. In the early 1980s, these major research initiatives were discontinued amidst budget cuts [111151]. In 1984, ER&E characterized its approaches: ‘Establish a scientific presence through research program in climate modeling; selective support of outside activities; maintain awareness of new scientific developments’ [152]. In 1986, scientist Haroon Kheshgi joined ER&E [153], and was henceforth ExxonMobil’s principal (and only consistent) academic author, co-authoring 72% (52/72) of all analyzed peer-reviewed work (79% since his hiring). Indeed, the metadata title of the ‘Exxon Mobil Contributed Publications’ file is ‘Haroon’s CV’ [15].

4.2. Government

As a 1980 ‘CO2 Greenhouse Communications Plan’ explained, ‘The research is…significant to Exxon since future public decisions aimed at controlling the buildup of atmospheric CO2 could impose limits on fossil fuel combustion’ [146]. The scientific research, a 1982 letter described, helped ‘to provide Exxon with the credentials required to speak with authority in this area’ [99]. ExxonMobil appealed to its research credentials in communications with government officials [84].

4.3. Exxon management

A 1981 ‘Review of Exxon climate research’ observes that ‘projects underway and planned on CO2…are providing an opportunity for us to develop a detailed understanding of the total Federal atmospheric CO2 program which the Corporation needs for its own planning…’ [111].

4.4. Public and policymakers

The company’s climate science research offered ‘great public relations value,’ observed a 1978 memo [145]. In 1980, with input from outside public relations counsel, Exxon developed a ‘CO2 Greenhouse Communications Plan,’ including advertorials, to target ‘opinion leaders who are not scientists’ [146147]. By 1988−9, this plan explicitly aimed to ‘extend the science’ and ‘emphasize the uncertainty in scientific conclusions regarding the potential enhanced Greenhouse effect’ [131147]. That year, 1989, they ran their first AGW advertorial. ExxonMobil’s interest in influencing the non-scientific public and policymakers helps explain our key observation: the discrepancy between internal and academic documents versus advertorials concerning AGW as real, human-caused, serious, and solvable. 

5. Conclusion

Available documents show a discrepancy between what ExxonMobil’s scientists and executives discussed about climate change privately and in academic circles and what it presented to the general public. The company’s peer-reviewed, non-peer-reviewed, and internal communications consistently tracked evolving climate science: broadly acknowledging that AGW is real, human-caused, serious, and solvable, while identifying reasonable uncertainties that most climate scientists readily acknowledged at that time. In contrast, ExxonMobil’s advertorials in the NYT overwhelmingly emphasized only the uncertainties, promoting a narrative inconsistent with the views of most climate scientists, including ExxonMobil’s own. This is characteristic of what Freudenberg et al term the Scientific Certainty Argumentation Method (SCAM)—a tactic for undermining public understanding of scientific knowledge [5758]. Likewise, the company’s peer-reviewed, non-peer-reviewed, and internal documents acknowledge the risks of stranded assets, whereas their advertorials do not. In light of these findings, we judge that ExxonMobil’s AGW communications were misleading; we are not in a position to judge whether they violated any laws.

This research was supported by Harvard University Faculty Development Funds and by the Rockefeller Family Fund. The authors have no other relevant financial ties and declare no conflicts of interest.

Footnotes

2 There are, of course, countless additional climate change communications from ExxonMobil that could be included in future work, including archived internal documents, advertorials published in newspapers beyond the NYT, and non-peer-reviewed materials such as speech transcripts, television adverts, patent documents, shareholder reports, and third-party communications (for example, from lobbyists, think-tanks, and politicians funded by ExxonMobil). These documents are potentially important, but are not the focus of the present study.

 

3 Citation counts were sourced predominantly from Google Scholar and, when occasionally not available there, from Web of Science. IPCC reports and a handful of non-applicable documents, such as drafts, were excluded.
References

[1] Schneiderman 2016 AG Schneiderman, former Vice President Al Gore and a coalition of Attorneys General from across the country announce historic state-based effort to combat climate change Press Release

[2] McKenna P 2016 Exxon rejects shareholder requests to address climate change InsideClimate News

[3] Gillis J and Krauss C 2015 Exxon Mobil investigated for possible climate change lies by New York Attorney General The New York Times

[4] Srolovic L M, Olson K g W and DeRoche M 2016 Subpoena for production of documents, the people of the state of New York (4:16-cv-00469-K)

[5] Larson E 2017 Schneiderman says Exxon’s climate change proxy costs may be a ‘sham’ Bloomberg News

[6] Schneiderman E T 2017 Memorandum of law in opposition to Exxon’s motion to quash and in support of the Office of the Attorney General’s cross-motion to compel (Index No. 451962/2016)

[7] Goldberg I A 2016 Civil Investigative Demand, The Commonwealth of Massachusetts Office of the Attorney General (2016-EPD-36)

[8] Healey 2016 Remarks of Attorney General Maura Healey climate change press conference in New York

[9] McKenna P 2016 Virgin Islands and Exxon agree to uneasy truce over climate probe InsideClimate News

[10]

Crooks E 2016 SEC probes ExxonMobil over asset values Financial Times

[11]

ExxonMobil Corp Our climate science history (Accessed: 28 July 2017)

[12]

ExxonMobil Corp Understanding the #ExxonKnew ‘controversy’ (Accessed: 28 July 2017)

[13]

Cohen K 2015 ExxonMobil’s commitment to climate science

[14]

Cohen K 2015 When it comes to climate change, read the documents

[15]

ExxonMobil Corp 2015 ExxonMobil Contributed Publications

[16]

ICN Documents InsideClimate News (Accessed: 28 July 2017)

[17]

Banerjee N, Song L, Hasemyer D and Cushman Jr J H 2015 Exxon: The road not taken InsideClimate News

[18]

Jerving S, Jennings K, Hirsh M M and Rust S 2015 What Exxon knew about the Earth’s melting Arctic Los Angeles Times

[19]

Brown C, Waltzer H and Waltzer M B 2001 Daring to be heard: advertorials by organized interests on the op-ed page of the New York Times, 1985–1998 Polit. Commun. 18 23–50

Crossref

[20]

Cooper C A and Nownes A J 2004 Money well spent? An experimental investigation of the effects of advertorials on citizen opinion Am. Polit. Res. 32 546–69

Crossref

[21]

Kollman K 1993 Outside Lobbying: Public Opinion and Interest Group Strategies (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press)

[22]

Cook J, Nuccitelli D, Green S A, Richardson M, Painting R, Way R and Jacobs P 2013 Quantifying the consensus on anthropogenic global warming in the scientific literature Environ. Res. Lett. 8 024024

IOPscience

[23]

Oreskes N 2004 The scientific consensus on climate change Science 306 1686

Crossref

[24]

Krippendorff K 2012 Content Analysis—An Introduction to its Methodology (Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE)

[25]

Neuendorf K A 2002 The Content Analysis Guidebook (Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE)

[26]

Metag J 2016 Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication ed M Nisbet, S Ho, E Markowitz, S O’Neill, M S Schäfer and J Thaker (New York: Oxford University Press) Content analysis methods for assessing climate change communication and media portrayals 1–34 pp https://perma.cc/E7KZ-3BMF

[27]

Feldman L, Maibach E W, Roser-Renouf C and Leiserowitz A 2012 Climate on cable: the nature and impact of global warming coverage on Fox News, CNN, and MSNBC Int. J. Press/Pol. 17 3–31

Crossref

[28]

Elsasser S W and Dunlap R E 2013 Leading voices in the denier choir: conservative columnists’ dismissal of global warming and denigration of climate science Am. Behav. Sci. 57 754–76

Crossref

[29]

Brown C and Waltzer H 2005 Every Thursday: advertorials by Mobil Oil on the op-ed page of The New York Times Public Relat. Rev. 31 197–208

Crossref

[30]

St. John B III 2014 The ‘creative confrontation’ of Herbert Schmertz: public relations sense making and the corporate persona Public Relat. Rev. 40 772–9

Crossref

[31]

St. John B III 2014 Conveying the sense-making corporate persona: The Mobil Oil ‘Observations’ columns, 1975–1980 Public Relat. Rev. 40 692–9

Crossref

[32]

Crable R E and Vibbert S L 1983 Mobil’s epideictic advocacy: ‘Observations’ of Prometheus‐bound Commun. Monogr. 50 380–94

Crossref

[33]

Murphree V and Aucoin J 2010 The energy crisis and the media: Mobil Oil Corporation’s debate with the media 1973–1983 Am. J. 27 7–30

[34]

Smith G L and Heath R L 1990 Moral appeals in Mobil Oil’s op-ed campaign Public Relat. Rev. 16 48–54

Crossref

[35]

Heath R L and Nelson R A 1986 Issues Management: Corporate Public Policymaking in an Information Society (Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE)

[36]

Kerr R L 2005 Rights of Corporate Speech: Mobil Oil and the Legal Development of the Voice of Big Business (El Paso, TX: LFB Scholarly Publishing)

[37]

Achakulwisut P, Scandella B, Supran G and Voss B 2016 Ending ExxonMobil sponsorship of the American Geophysical Union−How ExxonMobil’s past and present climate misinformation violates the AGU’s Organizational Support Policy and scientific integrity

[38]

Union of Concerned Scientists 2007 Smoke, Mirrors & Hot Air−How ExxonMobil Uses Big Tobacco’s Tactics to Manufacture Uncertainty on Climate Science

[39]

Coll S 2012 Private Empire: ExxonMobil and American Power (London: Penguin Books)

[40]

Cook J et al 2016 Consensus on consensus: a synthesis of consensus estimates on human-caused global warming Environ. Res. Lett. 11 048002

IOPscience

[41]

Jacques P J, Dunlap R E and Freeman M 2008 The organisation of denial: conservative think tanks and environmental scepticism Environ. Polit. 17 349–85

Crossref

[42]

Oreskes N and Conway E M 2010 Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming (New York: Bloomsbury Press)

[43]

McCright A M and Dunlap R E 2000 Challenging global warming as a social problem: an analysis of the conservative movement’s counter-claims Soc. Probl. 47 499–522

Crossref

[44]

McCright A M and Dunlap R E 2003 Defeating Kyoto: the conservative movement’s impact on US climate change policy Soc. Probl. 50 348–73

Crossref

[45]

Lahsen M 2005 Technocracy, democracy, and US climate policitics: the need for demarcations Sci. Technol. Hum. Values 30 137–69

Crossref

[46]

Gelbspan R 1997 The Heat is On (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing)

[47]

Brulle R J 2013 Institutionalizing delay: foundation funding and the creation of US climate change counter-movement organizations Clim. Change 122 681–94

Crossref

[48]

Gelbspan R 2004 Boiling Point (New York: Basic Books)

[49]

Schlichting I 2014 Consumer campaigns in corporate public affairs management—the case of climate change and the German energy industry J. Commun. Manage 18 402–21

Crossref

[50]

Manheim J B 2010 Strategy in Information and Influence Campaigns: How Policy Advocates, Social Movements, Insurgent Groups, Corporations, Governments and Others Get What They Want(Abingdon: Routledge)

[51]

Brandt A 2007 The Cigarette Century: the Rise, Fall, and Deadly Persistence of the Product that Defined America (New York: Basic Books)

[52]

Michaels D and Monforton C 2005 Manufacturing uncertainty: contested science and the protection of the public’s health and environment Public Health Matters 95 39–48

Crossref

[53]

Michaels D and Monforton C 2005 Scientific evidence in the regulatory system: manufacturing uncertainty and the demise of the formal regulatory system J. Law Policy 13 17–41

[54]

McGarity T O and Wagner W E 2012 Bending Science: How Special Interests Corrupt Public Health Research (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press)

[55]

Layzer J 2007 Business and Environmental Policy: Corporate Interests in the American Political System ed M E Kraft and S Kamieniecki (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press) Deep freeze: how business has shaped the global warming debate in Congress 93–125 pp

[56]

Banning M E 2009 When poststructural theory and contemporary politics collide—the vexed case of global warming Commun. Crit. Stud. 6 285–304

Crossref

[57]

Freudenburg W R, Gramling R and Davidson D J 2008 Scientific Certainty Argumentation Methods (SCAMs): science and the politics of doubt Sociol. Inq. 78 2–38

Crossref

[58]

Proctor R N and Schiebinger L 2008 Agnotology—The Making and Unmaking of Ignorance (Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press)

[59]

ExxonMobil Corp Supporting Materials (Accessed: 28 July 2017)

[60]

ClimateFiles 1995 Global Climate Coalition Draft Climate Change Science Primer

[61]

PolluterWatch Exxon and Mobil Ads (Accessed: 28 July 2017)

[62]

Krosnick J A, Holbrook A L, Lowe L and Visser P S 2006 The origins and consequences of democratic citizens’ policy agendas: a study of popular concern about global warming Clim. Change 77 7–43

Crossref

[63]

Ding D, Maibach E W, Zhao X, Roser-Renouf C and Leiserowitz A 2011 Support for climate policy and societal action are linked to perceptions about scientific agreement Nat. Clim. Change 1 462–6

Crossref

[64]

Roser-Renouf C, Maibach E W, Leiserowitz A and Zhao X 2014 The genesis of climate change activism: from key beliefs to political action Clim. Change 125 163–78

Crossref

[65]

Roser-Renouf C, Atkinson L, Maibach E and Leiserowitz A 2016 The consumer as climate activist Int. J. Commun. 10 4759–83

[66]

van der Linden S L, Leiserowitz A A, Feinberg G D and Maibach E W 2015 The scientific consensus on climate change as a gateway belief: experimental evidence PLoS One 10 e0118489

Crossref

[67]

SkepticalScience.com Climate myths sorted by taxonomy (Accessed: 28 July 2017)

[68]

Rahmstorf S 2004 Weather Catastrophes and Climate Change (Munich: Munich Re) The climate sceptics 76–83 pp

[69]

Michaels D 2008 Doubt is Their Product (Oxford: Oxford University Press)

[70]

Watson R T et al 1990 Climate Change—The IPCC Scientific Assessment. Contribution of Working Group I to the First Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

[71]

Albritton D et al 1996 Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change, Summary for Policymakers. Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

[72]

Dunlap R E and Brulle R J 2015 Climate Change and Society—Sociological Perspectives (Oxford: Oxford University Press)

Crossref

[73]

Douglass E 2015 Exxon’s gamble: 25 years of rejecting shareholder concerns on climate change InsideClimate News

[74]

Hulac B 2016 Original subpoena finally surfaces in Exxon case E&E News

[75]

Cardwell D 2017 Exxon Mobil shareholders demand accounting of climate change policy risks The New York Times

[76]

Santer B D et al 1996 Detection of Climate Change and Attribution of Causes. Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) ch 8

[77]

Mitchell J F B et al 2001 Detection of Climate Change and Attribution of Causes. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) ch 12

[78]

Prentice I C et al 2001 The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) ch 3

[79]

Kauppi P et al 2001 Technological and Economic Potential of Options to Enhance, Maintain, and Manage Biological Carbon Reservoirs and Geo-engineering. Contribution of Working Group III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) ch 4

[80]

Albritton D L et al 2001 Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, Summary for Policymakers. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

[81]

Kheshgi H S and Jain A K 2003 Projecting future climate change: implications of carbon cycle model intercomparisons Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 17 16

Crossref

[82]

Mastracchio R L 1979 Controlling Atmospheric CO (Internal Document)

[83]

Glaser M B 1982 CO (Internal Document)

[84]

Flannery B P 2002 Activities (Internal Document)

[85]

Kheshgi H S and White B S 2001 Testing distributed parameter hypotheses for the detection of climate change J. Clim. 14 3464–81

Crossref

[86]

Kheshgi H S 1995 Sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide by increasing ocean alkalinity Energy 20915–22

Crossref

[87]

Angell J K et al 1981 Proc. of the Workshop on First Detection of Carbon Dioxide ed N B Beatty (Washington, DC: US Department of Energy) The atmosphere 45–55 pp

[88]

Raymond L 1996 Global Warming: Who’s Right? Climate change: don’t ignore the facts 2–3 The Lamp pp

[89]

Hoffert M I et al 2003 Planning for future energy resources (response letter) Science 300 582–4

Crossref

[90]

Kheshgi H S, Shires T, Lev-On M, Siveter R, Ritter K and Hochhalter T 2008 Harmonizing the quantification of greenhouse gas emission reductions through oil and natural gas industry project guidelines (19–2473 WPC Conference Paper) 19th World Petroleum Congress (Spain)

[91]

Mobil 1999 Where we are and where we may be heading (Advertorial) The New York Times

[92]

Mobil 1997 Reset the alarm (Advertorial) The New York Times

[93]

Orr L 2003 The global climate and energy challenge (Advertorial) The New York Times

[94]

Mobil 2007 Climate change: a degree of uncertainty (Advertorial) The New York Times

[95]

Black J 1978 The Greenhouse Effect (Internal Document)

[96]

Shaw H 1984 CO2 Greenhouse and Climate Issues EUSA/ER&E Environmental Conference, Florham Park (New Jersey, 28 March 1984, Internal Document)

[97]

Flannery B P, Callegari A J and Hoffert M I 1984 Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity ed J E Hansen and T Takahashi (Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union) Energy balance models incorporating evaporative buffering of equatorial thermal response 108–17 pp

Crossref

[98]

Shaw H and McCall P P 1980 Exxon Research and Engineering Company’s Technological Forecast CO(Internal Document)

[99]

Cohen R W and Levine D G 1982 Untitled (consensus on CO (Internal Document)

[100]

Bernstein L S 1995 Primer on Climate Change Science (Internal Document)

[101]

ExxonMobil 2000 Political cart before a scientific horse (Advertorial) Washington Post

[102]

MacCracken M 2002 Untitled (Letter from MacCracken M to Raymond L, 26 September 2002)

[103]

Hoffert M I and Flannery B P 1985 Projecting the Climatic Effects of Increasing Carbon Dioxide ed M C MacCracken and F M Luther (Washington, DC: United States Department of Energy) Model projections of the time-dependent response to increasing carbon dioxide

[104]

Mobil 1997 Science: what we know and don’t know (Advertorial) The New York Times

[105]

ExxonMobil 2000 Unsettled science (Advertorial) The New York Times

[106]

Keigwin L D 2000 Untitled (Letter from Keigwin L D to Altman P, December 11, 2000)

[107]

Keigwin L D 1996 The little ice age and medieval warm period in the Sargasso Sea Science 2741504–8

Crossref

[108]

Hoffert M I et al 2002 Advanced technology paths to global climate stability: energy for a greenhouse planet Science 298 981–8

Crossref

[109]

Jain A K, Kheshgi H S and Wuebbles D J 1994 Integrated science model for assessment of climate change (94-TP59.08) 87th Annual Meeting and Exhibition of the Air and Waste Management Association (Cincinnati, 19–24 June 1994)

[110]

Randalls S 2010 History of the 2 °C climate target WIREs Clim. Change 1 598–605

Crossref

[111]

Long G H 1981 Atmospheric CO (Internal Document)

[112]

Mobil 1995 The sky is not falling (Advertorial) The New York Times

[113]

Flannery B P 1989 Connections Greenhouse science 5 p (Internal Document)

[114]

Kheshgi H S, Prince R C and Marland G 2000 The potential of biomass fuels in the context of global change: focus on transportation fuels Annu. Rev. Energy Environ. 25 199–244

Crossref

[115]

David E E Jr 1984 Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity ed J E Hansen and T Takahashi (Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union) Inventing the future: energy and the CO2 ‘greenhouse’ effect

[116]

Adler J H 1996 Global Warming: Who’s Right? Global warming. What to think? What to do? 4–8 The Lamp pp

[117]

Shaw H 1980 Draft statement of findings and recommendations National Commission on Air Quality CO

[118]

ExxonMobil Corp 1998 Global climate change, everyone’s debate (Preface by Raymond L)

[119]

ExxonMobil 2002 Managing greenhouse gas emissions (Advertorial) The New York Times

[120]

ExxonMobil 2004 Weather and climate (Advertorial) The New York Times

[121]

ExxonMobil 2000 Do no harm (Advertorial) The New York Times

[122]

Mobil 1997 Climate change: where we come out (Advertorial) The New York Times

[123]

ExxonMobil 2001 Moving past Kyoto… (Advertorial) The New York Times

[124]

Mobil 1996 A policy agenda for tomorrow (Advertorial) The New York Times

[125]

Mobil 1996 With climate change, what we don’t know can hurt us (Advertorial) The New York Times

[126]

Mobil 1997 Stop, look and listen before we leap (Advertorial) The New York Times

[127]

Kheshgi H S 2004 Evasion of CO2 injected into the ocean in the context of CO2 stabilization Energy29 1479–86

Crossref

[128]

Kheshgi H S, Smith S J and Edmonds J A 2005 Emissions and atmospheric CO2 stabilization: long-term limits and paths Mitig. Adapt. Strateg. Glob. Change 10 213–20

Crossref

[129]

Kheshgi H S 2003 Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies ed J Gale and Y Kaya (Amsterdam: Pergamon) Evasion of CO2 injected into the ocean in the context of CO2 stabilization 811–6 pp

Crossref

[130]

Rogelj J, Schaeffer M, Friedlingstein P, Gillett N P, van Vuuren D P, Riahi K, Allen M and Knutti R 2016 Differences between carbon budget estimates unravelled Nat. Clim. Change 6 245–52

Crossref

[131]

Levine D G 1989 Potential Enhanced Greenhouse Effects−Status and Outlook (Internal Document)

[132]

Bolin B and Kheshgi H S 2001 On strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 98 4850–4

Crossref

[133]

Flannery B P and Kheshgi H S 2005 Proc. of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Workshop on Industry Technology Development, Transfer and Diffusion (Tokyo, 21–23 September 2004) ed J Kessels An industry perspective on successful development and global commercialization of innovative technologies for GHG mitigation 36–50 pp (21–23 September 2004)

[134]

ExxonMobil 2002 A responsible path forward on climate (Advertorial) The New York Times

[135]

McCarron S 2016 ExxonMobil responds to state AGs

[136]

Hulac B 2016 Exxon claims right to depose ‘everybody’ from AG announcement E&E News

[137]

Mobil 1997 CNN and the value of instant replay (Advertorial) The New York Times

[138]

Mobil 1996 Less heat, more light on climate change (Advertorial) The New York Times

[139]

Hoffert M I, Callegari A J and Hsieh C-T 1980 The role of deep sea heat storage in the secular response to climatic forcing J. Geophys. Res. 85 6667–79

Crossref

[140]

Hoffert M I, Wey Y-C, Callegari A J and Broecker W S 1979 Atmospheric response to deep-sea injections of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide Clim. Change 2 53–68

Crossref

[141]

ICN 2015 Andrew Callegari biography InsideClimate News

[142]

Flannery B P 1984 Energy balance models incorporating transport of thermal and latent energy J. Atmos. Sci. 41 414–21

Crossref

[143]

Hoffert M I, Callegari A J and Hsieh C-T 1981 Carbon Cycle Modeling, SCOPE 16 ed B Bolin (Chichester: Wiley) A box-diffusion carbon cycle model with upwelling, polar bottom water formation and a marine biosphere 287–306 pp

[144]

Hoffert M I, Flannery B P, Callegari A J, Hsieh C-T and Wiscombe W 1983 Evaporation-limited tropical temperatures as a constraint on climate sensitivity J. Atmos. Sci. 40 1659–68

Crossref

[145]

Shaw H 1978 Untitled (request for a credible scientific team) (Internal Document)

[146]

Werthamer N R 1980 CO (Internal Document)

[147]

Carlson J M 1988 The Greenhouse Effect (Internal Document)

[148]

Banerjee N, Song L and Hasemyer D 2015 Exxon believed deep dive into climate research would protect its business InsideClimate News

[149]

Eckelmann W R 1980 Exxon’s View and Position on ‘Greenhouse Effect’ (Internal Document)

[150]

Garvey E A, Shaw H, Broecker W S and Takahashi T 1979 Proposed Exxon Research Program to Help Assess the Greenhouse Effect (Internal Document)

[151]

Natkin A M 1982 CRL/CO (Internal Document)
  • [152]
    Callegari A J 1984 Corporate Research Program in Climate/CO (Internal Document)
  • [153]
    Haroon Kheshgi biography AlChE (Accessed: 28 July 2017)

————–

Read related InsideClimateNews article here

A comprehensive, peer-reviewed academic study of ExxonMobil’s internal deliberations, scientific research and public rhetoric over the decades has confirmed empirically that the oil giant misled the public about what it knew about climate change and the risks posed by fossil fuel emissions,the authors said on Tuesday.

The paper confirms the findings of a 2015 investigative series by InsideClimate News that was based largely on the company’s internal records, and also of independent work published by the Los Angeles Times. That reporting ignited investigations by state attorneys general that are still in litigation….

%d bloggers like this: