Denver’s 100% Clean Electricity by 2030 Commitment and 80×50 Climate Action Plan

Denver Mayor Michael Hancock announced in summer 2018 Denver’s Commitment to have 100% clean electricity by 2030.  Xcel committed to be providing 80% clean electricity by 2030.

Denver is targeting 80% clean by 2050, across the board


Greetings Denver,

Climate change is the single biggest issue we face that has negative impacts on both our environment and public health. We see these impacts here in Denver and across the globe. The number of wild fires has increased, ravaging our mountains while degrading air quality from fine particles and ozone precursors that in turn increase the risk of premature death and adverse chronic and acute cardiovascular and respiratory health outcomes. More extreme heat events put vulnerable populations at increased risk, especially here in Denver where we have historically not needed air conditioning.

For this reason, the Denver Department of Public Health & Environment has tracked and reported the city’s greenhouse gas emissions -the climate-altering compounds resulting primarily from human-based activity. Informed by that data, and by stakeholder and community input, we have developed an ambitious, yet achievable plan to meet an 80% reduction in those emissions by 2050. We consulted experts from multiple sectors across Denver and the region to help prioritize strategies to leverage the momentum of existing efforts across the energy efficiency, transportation, and electricity generation sectors.

As the largest city within 500 miles, we have an obligation to lead on climate, not only to influence a large area of the mountain west, but also as the agency responsible for protecting the health and environment of Denver. We are proud of our evidence- and data-based approach to mitigation strategies, and humbled by the community response we have received during this process. We look forward to continued collaboration with our partners and the citizens of Denver as we implement the strategies in our plan to protect our environment and public health through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

Bob McDonald
Executive Director
Denver Department of Public Health & Environment

Interim Carbon Reduction Goals…………………………………………………………………………..2
How We Get There…………………………………………………………………………………………………….4
Denver’s History of Climate Action…………………………………………………………………….11
80×50 Stakeholder Engagement………………………………………………………………………….15
Community Feedback……………………………………………………………………………………………..16
Terms and Acronyms……………………………………………………………………………………………….21


Climate change is not only the single greatest public health and environmental threat, it is one of the biggest challenges of our generation. Future generations will judge us on how well we preserved the habitability of our only home — Earth. From local impacts such as worsening air quality and increasing frequency of extreme heat to global impacts like reductions in food supply and sea level rise, the effects will be felt in Denver and around the world.

Cities can bend the curve on carbon because they are responsible for over 70 percent of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. Denver can implement effective strategies that will help guide our City to a climate safe future in a way that works well for all the businesses and residents of Denver. These strategies will also clean our air and water, make us more resilient, improve our health and preserve quality of life in the city that we love.

Our vision is to:

Make Denver a leader in clean and local energy that comes from the sun, wind, or other innovative renewable technologies.
Transform Denver buildings into high-performing places to live, work, learn, and play.
Inspire community action and ensure environmental justice, equity and affordability as Denver transitions to a carbon-free energy system.
Transform Denver into a community where people walk, bike, take transit, or carpool for most trips in a safe, accessible, and affordable transportation network.
Guide Denver toward a clean, carbon-free transportation system that improves the health and livability of our communities.
Make Denver a leader in sustainable, smart transportation through innovative partnerships, policies, programs, and technology.


Denver will aim to meet the following sector specific goals necessary to achieve the 80×50 Climate Goal. These goals were created to ensure there is a clear glide path to 2050 and a strong emphasis on measurable carbon reductions from all key sectors within the scope or influence of local government.

Reduction in GHG Emissions (2005 Baseline)

15% Reduction by 2020

• Commercial buildings
15% reduction in
energy use

• 200 electric vehicles
in the City fleet
2025 30% reduction
• Residential single-family
homes 10% reduction in
energy use
• Municipal buildings
100% renewable
• 15% of Denver
vehicle registrations
are electric
2030 45% reduction
• Commercial buildings
45% reduction in energy
• Community
100% renewable
• 30% of Denver
vehicle registrations
are electric
• Meet Mobility
Action Plan goals
◦◦ 16% of commuters
will use public
◦◦ 9% of commuters
will walk to work
◦◦ 8% of commuters
will bike to work
◦◦ 7.5% of commuters
will telecommute
Reduction in
GHG Emissions
(2005 Baseline)
Buildings Electricity Supply Transportation
2035 55% reduction
• Residential single-family
homes 20% reduction in
energy use
• New buildings
Net Zero Energy
– –
2040 65% reduction
• Reduce thermal heating
emissions in residential
and commercial
buildings 25% and 50%,
respectively, through
efficiency and fuel
– –
2045 75% reduction – – –
2050 80% reduction
• Commercial buildings
50% reduction in
energy use

• 100% of light duty
vehicles are electric
• 75% of freight
trucks will use
carbon neutral fuel
• 100% of taxis and
network vehicles are
• 100% of public
transportation will
be carbon free
Leading studies, including a recent analysis released by McKinsey & Company entitled A strategic approach to climate
action in cities—focused acceleration, emphasize that cities should focus on a few top priorities to maximize impact.
Specifically, the analysis focuses on four areas that match up with Denver’s approach to meet the 80×50 Climate Goal:
Denver is focusing on the top three sectors that will have the largest impact and best opportunities for GHG reductions:
buildings, electricity generation, and transportation. Strategies outlined below have proven effective in many other
cities. Denver will pursue these strategies and continue to analyze and implement new, innovative practices to ensure we
remain on target with our carbon reduction goals.
optimizing energy
efficiency in buildings
decarbonizing the
electricity grid
enabling nextgeneration
improving waste
• Adopt the 2018 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC)
• Participate in IECC code update process to influence the adoption of more aggressive energy codes
• Develop an energy performance program, which would require buildings that are less efficient to make
periodic cost-effective, incremental energy improvements
• Develop a stretch code and incentives for new buildings
• Continue to increase building code to net-zero energy for new buildings and to be significantly more
stringent for existing buildings by 2035
• Target homes in need of efficiency upgrades and pair with additional strategies like electric vehicles, solar,
storage, and fuel switching
• Establish a home energy rating for all single-family buildings so that owners, renters and potential buyers
can make informed decisions about a home’s efficiency and operating costs
• Set minimum energy efficiency standards for rental properties
• Partner with local and national organizations to facilitate group discounts for energy improvements to
maximize program uptake and cost savings
The role of efficiency is strategically important to the feasibility and economics of renewable electricity efforts.
Efficiency allows for “right-sized” renewable energy additions, both for distributed and utility scale efforts. Efficiency
also is an important means to reduce overall costs for energy, through the absolute reduction of energy consumption.
Decarbonizing commercial buildings is one of the best ways to achieve our energy efficiency goals and will play a large
role in reducing GHG emissions, propelling Denver toward the goal of a 15 percent reduction of total emissions by 2020
and a 45 percent reduction by 2030.
Denver will continue its Energize Denver program that focuses on energy efficiency in commercial and multifamily
buildings, including the benchmarking requirement. The program requires buildings exceeding 25,000 square feet to
annually benchmark their energy use and make that data publicly available. Future programs will require less-efficient
buildings to make periodic cost-effective, incremental energy-efficiency improvements.
Denver will support stronger building codes by adopting the 2018 IECC to ensure that new construction and major
renovation projects are highly efficient. The City will also continually improve codes over time by adopting code
updates, creating new policies and incentives like stretch codes, and enforcing them; eventually increasing the code
to net-zero for all new buildings. Intermediate strategies also include establishing a green lease program, providing
incentives for high-performing, LEED and net-zero buildings, and providing training and outreach to drive investments
in energy efficiency and behavioral-based energy efficiency.
Decarbonizing buildings
These efforts are in line with McKinsey & Company’s recommendations for emissions reductions associated with the
commercial building sector. Denver will raise “building standards for new construction, retrofitting building envelopes,
upgrading HVAC and water heating technology, and implementing lighting, appliance, and automation improvements.”
Since commercial buildings have a lasting presence in communities, ensuring that new buildings and existing buildings
achieve high performing building standards is essential to lock in the emissions reductions.
Another important focus of the City is the residential sector. Denver has set a target to decrease energy consumption in
single family homes by 10 percent by 2025 and 20 percent by 2035. Denver will provide guidance and develop strategies
to drive investments in energy efficiency and behavioral-based changes. Denver will establish minimum energy
standards for rental housing and engage property owners to ensure that energy efficiency, renewable energy adoption,
and other emissions reduction strategies from fuel switching are implemented cost-effectively for residents. The City
will continue to provide resources on existing financing and incentive programs and encourage residents to fully utilize
Xcel Energy and Denver programs. The City will explore how sharing a home’s energy score during the home buying
and selling process can result in energy and utility bill savings. Additionally, the Sustainable Neighborhoods certification
program gives residents the opportunity to become active partners in making Denver a vibrant and sustainable
community, and can help facilitate deeper engagement and actions related to residential energy efficiency.
• Defend and enhance Colorado’s Renewable Portfolio Standard
• Support Xcel Energy’s plans to reduce carbon emissions through the addition of renewable energy
projects, energy efficiency and other strategies
• Advocate at the Public Utilities Commission for continued large-scale renewable energy investments
• Increase the capacity and types of customer choice renewable programs available in Denver
• Develop low-income specific customer choice programs, such as 100 percent low-income community
solar and other renewable energy programs
• Accelerate smart grid technology through advocacy or programs
• Accelerate the adoption of electricity storage systems, including pumped water, battery, compressed air
and other innovation technologies
• Utilize Xcel Energy and Denver’s Energy Future Collaboration Memorandum of Understanding to
advance projects and policies that reduce carbon emissions from the electricity grid
Decarbonizing the electricity grid
• Minneapolis, MN 100% by 2030
• Moab, UT 100% by 2032
• Nederland, CO 100% by 2025
• Park City, UT 100% by 2032
• Pueblo, CO 100% by 2035
• Salt Lake City, UT 100% by 2032
• San Diego, CA 100% by 2035
• San Francisco, CA 100% by 2030
• San Jose, CA 100% by 2022
• St. Louis, MO 100% by 2035
A growing number of cities have announced 100 percent renewable electricity goals, over 65 in total, including:
• Aspen, CO 100% by 2015
• Atlanta, GA 100% by 2030
• Boulder, CO 100% by 2030
• Breckenridge, CO 100% by 2035
• Columbia, SC 100% by 2036
• Lafayette, CO 100% by 2030
In April of 2017, the Denver City Council passed a proclamation “Reaffirming Denver’s Commitment to Planet-Friendly
Policies”, which called for joining other cities in pledging to meet 100 percent of our city’s electricity needs through
renewable sources by 2030. Denver has now made that pledge and will lead by example to achieve 100 percent renewable
electricity for municipal buildings by 2025.
To maximize the potential for impact, Denver will need to assess the ability to rapidly increase the amount of renewable
energy, both grid-wide and dedicated specifically to Denver. That is why Denver has embraced the goal of achieving
community-wide renewable electricity by 2030. Denver is part of a larger service territory and represents almost 25
percent of the territory load, so we can benefit from renewables on the larger grid while also looking at ways to develop
Denver specific renewable capacity. While Denver is calling for 100 percent renewable to meet community-wide electricity
demands, there are still important economic and technical considerations for achieving grid-wide renewable penetration
above 80 percent. Costs for renewables and battery storage continue to plummet and new technologies may emerge.
Carbon capture and sequestration may also play a role in grid decarbonization over time. Denver will continue to work
with leading experts to evaluate these opportunities and adjust our plans to react to new innovations in the market.
“Utilities and regulators must play a central role in ensuring the
overall mix of renewables is appropriately balanced at a system
level, and that critical components such as energy storage are in
place to ensure grid reliability.”
A strategic approach to climate action in cities—focused acceleration,
McKinsey & Company,
November 2017
The ability to acquire additional renewable energy will require the partnership of the investor-owned utility, Xcel
Energy. To bolster this partnership, Denver and Xcel Energy recently entered into a Memorandum of Understanding
called the Energy Future Collaboration. This partnership details respective visions, values, and principles and identifies
a framework to achieve our goals. Denver and Xcel Energy are working together to ensure we can accurately track
renewable energy towards Denver’s goal. One option being explored is the Certified Grid Mix approach, which has been
approved and utilized in other regulatory environments.There is widespread public support in Denver for advancing
the renewable electricity goal. Eighty-one percent of survey takers in the community-wide 80×50 survey responded that
Denver should set a goal to reach 100 percent renewable electricity. To achieve this target, Denver will act with partners
in multiple areas, including pursuing additional renewable energy on new construction, residential rooftops and
community solar gardens, and modernizing the grid. Denver will work with Xcel Energy to allow isolated districts and
microgrids, increase energy storage, expand renewable choice programs and incentives.
• Advocate that Colorado adopt Clean Car Standards including the Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) standard
• Advocate for the ability of electric utilities to rate-base charging infrastructure
• Advocate for elimination of demand charges for DC fast charging
• Expand safe biking and walking infrastructure through direct action by the City or policy
• Increase access and affordability of clean and healthy transportation choices
• Partner with car share companies to provide access to electric vehicles and make subsidized
memberships available to low-income people
• Support electric-vehicle workplace charging programs and increase the number of publicly available
charging stations
• Create building codes to require charging opportunities at multifamily units and workplaces
• Provide electric-vehicle charging infrastructure in all City buildings
• Support electrification of local and regional delivery trucks and other heavier vehicles
• Fully implement the Mobility Action Plan to realize all 2030 targets
Decarbonizing transportation
Denver prioritizes biking, walking and public transit, and values innovative approaches to transportation and mobility.
Mobility options other than driving are growing, while electric vehicles are accelerating the market share at a rapid pace.
EVs are the only commercially available vehicle that gets cleaner over time as our grid decarbonizes. Denver will create
policies, plans, incentives and public awareness campaigns to increase access to charging infrastructure and accelerate
market adoption of electric vehicles. The 2030 target is 40 percent of all vehicle registrations in Denver are electric
vehicles. In addition to climate benefits, increased mobility options and electric vehicles present the best opportunity to
decrease harmful air pollution and avoid non-compliance with health based air quality standards.
Regulatory and policy drivers
To better plan for needed reductions, Denver analyzed several Business as Usual (BAU) projections that included population
growth, changes in energy consumption and vehicle miles travelled, and on the books policies that would impact emissions.
The majority of the BAU reductions came from projected increases in efficiencies from the building sector, emissions factor
reductions from planned renewable energy projects, and fuel efficiency improvements in new vehicles.
In August of 2017, Xcel Energy filed a Stipulation with the Colorado Public Utilities Commission that detailed their Colorado
Energy Plan – “a path to secure long-term and low-cost power for customers, spur economic development opportunities
in rural Colorado, and grow the state’s portfolio of wind power, solar power, natural gas and other clean energy sources.” In
March 2018, the Colorado Public Utilities Commission granted Xcel Energy the opportunity to present its plan, with the
exact timing of implementation and specific amount of renewable energy still to be determined. Denver has worked with Xcel
Energy to incorporate potential reductions in emissions per kilowatt-hour through 2026 projections.
On April 2, 2018, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced its determination to revise the federal clean car
standards that will likely significantly roll back current emission standards for new vehicles beyond 2021. In response, Denver
has formally advocated for the state of Colorado to adopt Advanced Clean Car Standards to ensure that these important
protections for public health and the environment are implemented even in the absence of strong federal regulations. The
Governor has directed the Colorado Air Quality Control Commission to explore the adoption of low emission vehicle
standards by the end of 2018. The process for revision of the federal clean car standards could last for many years and therefore
Denver did not change its original BAU projections related to more efficient light duty vehicles. However, in subsequent
updates to this analysis and report, changes may be made to better reflect outcomes in this sector.
Equity and community health
Throughout the stakeholder process and within the community input, an overriding theme emerged to ensure equitable
access and equitable benefit. One of the six vision statements, developed by stakeholders and reinforced with community
input, was: “Inspire community action and ensure environmental justice, equity and affordability as Denver transitions
to a carbon-free energy system.” Strategies and policies that arise out of the 80×50 Climate Plan must consider equitable
access to benefits and ensure that our most vulnerable populations do not bear a disproportionate cost. Truly, the cost
of doing nothing will be borne disproportionately by the most vulnerable. The City will look to universally beneficial
strategies that improve efficiencies, while bringing the total cost of home ownership, rent, and transportation down.
“Tackling climate change could be the greatest global health opportunity of the
21st century.
Many mitigation and adaptation responses to climate change are ‘no-regret’
options, which lead to direct reductions in the burden of ill-health, enhance
community resilience, alleviate poverty, and address global inequity.”
The Lancet Commission
Published online June 23, 2015
Fossil fuel energy production and consumption is a primary source of GHG emissions, but also produces other harmful
pollutants, including sulfur dioxide (SO2), mercury and other air toxins, and precursors to surface-level ozone (O3). By
switching to cleaner, renewable energy sources, Denver can improve public health while ensuring safer and more reliable
energy. Climate action strategies can also benefit environmental justice communities and assist in delivering more
equitable health outcomes.
Next Steps
In the time between the stakeholder report release and this plan, many events have reinforced that renewable energy,
electricity storage and other technological advancements will pave the way for deep carbon reductions in cities like
Denver. After Xcel Energy received extremely low bids for renewable plus storage energy resources in January of 2018
as part of its Colorado Energy Plan, the rapid transition to renewables appears to be set for another leap in availability,
affordability, and reliability.
As electric vehicles expand their market share, Denver will need a nimble and responsive approach to align strategies
with electric vehicle deployment numbers. Likewise, advancements in building efficiency and design will allow the
thermal heating sector to decrease in both cost and contribution to community-wide emissions. To ensure the best
strategies are deployed to meet Denver’s 80×50 goal, the City will continuously reassess the strategies and goals in this
plan to match the technological advancement and economic trends, as well as the climate science.
Many technologies like energy storage were not discussed in depth at the time of the stakeholder process, but since
that time have seen rapid improvements in feasibility and cost reductions. Similarly, carbon capture technology
was not discussed during the stakeholder process, and if similar improvements in feasibility and cost reduction are
demonstrated, it may be considered in the future. At a minimum, all future technologies would need to be evaluated for
their absolute emissions reductions potential (from source to site), costs for energy generation, and impact to human
health and the environment.
In 2007, Denver became one of the first large U.S. cities to recognize the potential threats and broad-reaching impacts of
climate change by releasing its first Climate Action Plan. Denver was also one of the first cities to sign on to the Mayor’s
Climate Protection Agreement of the U.S. Conference of Mayors, the ambitious Mayors’ National Climate Action
Agenda, and the Global Covenant of Mayors. Denver made significant progress toward meeting these commitments
with the release of the 2014 Climate Adaptation Plan and the 2015 update.
In 2015, Denver released an updated Climate Action Plan with analysis and strategies to meet the 2020 climate goal
of reducing CO2 emissions to below 1990 levels. The plan also established the long-term goal to reduce emissions 80
percent by 2050 using a 2005 baseline. Many of the key strategies identified in the plan are being implemented, including
a new benchmarking requirement for large buildings that became law in 2016. Voters also recently approved the green
roofs ordinance, which offered solar as an option to comply for both new and existing buildings.
In 2017, Denver updated its annual greenhouse gas inventory to meet global reporting protocols and allow for more
detailed analysis and tracking of community-wide greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Denver’s annual GHG inventory,
first completed in 2005, evaluates GHG emissions levels and progress made in emissions reduction efforts.
Denver has succeeded in achieving the many climate commitments it has made and will continue to act aggressively to
reduce GHG emissions through measurement, disclosure, planning, policy and programs.
Denver Climate Commitments and Progress
Commitment Group Action Summary of Progress
US Conference of Mayors 2007
• Initiate GHG inventory
• Integrate GHG reduction
strategies into government
• Annual inventories since 2009
• Increases in building
• Increases in renewable energy
on city buildings/property
• Increases in fuel efficient and
electric vehicles in city fleet
• Promote GHG reduction
strategies to community
• Utilized federal grants
to develop and expand
residential and smallcommercial
energy efficiency
• Developed community
programs for electric vehicles,
multi-modal, and transit
Mayor’s National Climate
Action Agenda
• Set Interim Climate Goal
• This document establishes
interim goals for GHGs and
multiple sectors
• Set Long-Term Climate Goal
• Denver’s 2015 Climate Action
Plan Established 80×50 Goal
• Make GHG Inventory Global
Protocol Compliant
• Denver’s 2015 Inventory
is now Global Protocol
Global Covenant of Mayors
• Create Adaptation Plan
• Written in 2014 and updated
in 2015
• Create Mitigation Plan
• 2015 Climate Action Plan and
this report
• Public reporting of all
• Reported to Carbon Disclosure
Project (CDP) since 2012
We Are Still In
• Maintain commitment to meet
or exceed the Paris Accord
• The 2025 target in this report
is more aggressive than the
Paris Accord target
Denver’s annual GHG inventory, begun in 2005, evaluates GHG emissions levels and progress made in emissions
reduction efforts. The inventory measures the three most frequently occurring GHGs: Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane
(CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). The inventory categorizes emissions according to Scope and Sector. Inventory Scope is
a determination of “where” the emissions occur.
Scope I indicates that the emissions occur within the physical boundary of the city, e.g. vehicle tailpipe emissions and
natural gas combustion for heating. Scope II indicates that the emissions occur because of the use of grid-supplied
electricity, heat, steam and/or cooling within the city boundary. In Denver’s case, electricity is generated (and emissions
occur) outside its boundary, but the electricity is used within the boundary of Denver. Scope III emissions are all other
emissions occurring outside the boundary but are due to demands within the city boundary, e.g. the transportation fuel
used to get products into the city. With most major cities reporting GHG emissions, it is easy to see that one city’s Scope
I emissions would be another city’s scope III emissions. To ensure that double counting does not occur and to enable
aggregation of multiple city inventories at a national level, global reporting protocols have been developed to improve
consistency and accuracy.
Sources can be broken down into two distinct categories: core emissions and upstream emissions. Core or direct
emissions are those that typically occur within the boundary of the city (Scope I) or are more directly controlled/
influenced (Scope II), representing the greatest opportunity for action on the part of the city. These include emissions
from building energy use, transportation and fuels, street lights, and waste management. Upstream or indirect emissions
occur outside the boundary of the city but are demanded by people and businesses, such as refining of fuel, airline
jet fuel, cement production, and food packaging and transport. GHG emissions are reported as total and per capita
emissions in units of metric tons of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e).
Denver is proud of its track record in conducting and reporting annual inventories, as well as public reporting of
plans, targets and goals for climate mitigation and adaptation. A robust GHG inventory program allows for long-term
trajectory analysis and forecasting. Denver will continue to produce and publicly release its annual GHG inventory to
report on progress.
Updated Greenhouse Gas
Inventory Methodology
In 2017, Denver updated its annual GHG inventory
process to meet global reporting protocols and allow
for more detailed analysis and tracking of communitywide
GHG emissions. The new protocols have more
detailed requirements for breaking out emissions within
Scope, Sector, and specific GHG. In many cases, the new
methodology requires additional categories of emissions
not previously tracked. Most importantly, as more
cities update to this new standard, the aggregation of
consistently reported data will improve accounting and
the ability to develop policies and programs for emissions
reductions. However, the new protocol is a change in
methodology and as a result makes comparisons of
previous years’ inventories difficult. Additionally, detailed
data required for the current methodology may not
be available for previous years’ inventories. Denver is
in the process of updating its baseline year inventory
(2005) to the updated methodology with as much detail
as is available. Regardless of inventory method, the
major emissions, conclusions, and strategies outlined
in the stakeholder report and this report are sound and
appropriate. For 2020 goal tracking purposes, Denver
will update its GHG inventory using both methodologies.
In late 2015, Mayor Michael B. Hancock strengthened Denver’s leadership in the effort to prevent the worst effects of
climate change by setting a long-term climate goal to reduce GHG emissions 80 percent below 2005 levels by 2050. He
also called for a robust stakeholder engagement process to identify strategies to achieve the goal. This plan is the result of
that stakeholder process, which included a detailed technical analysis, literature review and extensive consultation with
national and international experts.
Denver’s 80×50 Climate Goal stakeholder process consisted of two key stakeholder groups: The Technical Advisory
Committee and the Task Force. The Technical Advisory Committee worked to create a broad list of systems-based
approaches to GHG reductions within four distinct sectors: mobile supply, mobile demand, stationary supply and
stationary demand. The Mobile Sector generally includes emissions from transportation, excluding the airport.
Stationary Sector generally includes emissions from buildings. Supply side emissions are determined by the type of
fuel or energy used, while demand side emissions are determined by the efficiency or amount of energy used for an
activity. The Task Force integrated the summary matrix produced by the Technical Advisory Committee into a larger
transformative framework. These systems thinkers wove together the technical, financial, market, regulatory and social
factors that impact energy systems into a plan that meets the 80×50 Climate Goal.
In August 2017, DDPHE published the 80×50 Stakeholder Report. The stakeholder report recommends goals and
strategies designed to reduce core emissions from residential, commercial and industrial building energy use, vehicular
surface travel, and energy supply. The 2015 GHG inventory was the most recent inventory available and used to
determine goals during this process.
Following the extensive stakeholder process, those who live, work, and play in Denver were encouraged to provide
input on the plan by taking the 80×50 Climate Goal Survey or attending community events where the report was
presented. The survey was created by DDPHE and distributed online through City channels and community partners.
The survey, available in English and Spanish, was posted through SurveyMonkey and was limited by IP address,
discouraging respondents from taking the survey more than once. Respondents were not required to answer every
question. More than 1,700 respondents took the survey. It was open between September 6th, 2017 and November 25th,
2017 and key findings are highlighted below.
Denver should take aggressive local action to combat climate change.
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
Strongly Agree
Somewhat Agree
Neither Agree
Nor Disagree
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
Strongly Agree
Somewhat Agree
Neither Agree
Nor Disagree
The 80×50 Climate Goal Stakeholder Report indicates that electricity from renewable sources (like the sun
and wind) is very important to meeting the goal. Currently 29 percent of the electricity Xcel Energy provides
to Denver is from renewable sources. Xcel Energy plans to increase this percentage to 55 percent by 2026.
Denver should partner with Xcel Energy to increase the production of renewable energy. State to which level
you agree with this statement.
Some respondents’ comments on this question indicated that they felt the city should partner with others beyond
Xcel Energy to achieve these goals. Comments included:
Denver should
pursue renewable
resources from
whatever sources
are available,
including Xcel
Energy, but
not necessarily
exclusively from
Why look to
only Xcel and rely
on their energy
production? I think
the renewable
energy should
be way above
55 percent and
the goal should
be 100 percent.
Working with
Xcel must just
be one part of
our energy
provider menu.
55 percent
by 2026 is not
100 percent
by 2026
How much extra on your utility bill would you be willing to pay to achieve 100 percent renewable (or very
nearly 100 percent) energy?
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
No more than
5 percent
5 – 10 percent
10 – 20 percent
More than
20 percent
When asked to rank the most important factors to consider when working toward implementation of strategies,
55 percent ranked climate impacts as the most important consideration. Second most important was to account for the
equity of strategies and solutions.
80×50 Task Force and
Technical Advisory Group
Marc Alston
Former EPA staff and Certified Professional Coach
Chris Armstrong
CityNOW Director of Smart Mobility
Andrea Bailey
Biofuels Fellow
Department of Energy
Rachel Bannon-Godfrey
Director of Sustainability
Kathie Barstnar
Whiting Management Resources
Chris Bui
Lead Policy and Partnerships Coordinator
Denver Public Health
Celeste Cizik
Existing Buildings Team Leader
Group14 Engineering
Jacob Corvidae
Rocky Mountain Institute
Britt Coyne
Air Quality Program Coordinator
American Lung Association
Matthew Crosby
Program Manager
Liz Doris
Principal Laboratory Program Manager for State,
Local, and Tribal Programs
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Perry Edman
Planning Project Manager
Regional Transportation District
Maria Eisemann
Transportation Policy Analyst
Colorado Energy Office
Mat Elmore
Managing Director
Rocky Mountains at MicroGrid
Taryn Finnessey
Climate Change Risk Management Specialist
State of Colorado Department of Natural Resources
Greg Fulton
Colorado Motor Carriers Association
Angie Fyfe
Executive Director
Julie George
HEAL Cities & Towns Campaign at LiveWell Colorado
Jennifer Gremmert
Executive Director
Energy Outreach Colorado
Jack Ihle
Manager of Commercial Environmental Policy
Xcel Energy
Paul Kashmann
Representative City Council
District 6
Kay Kelly
Clean Cities Project Leader
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Michael King
Transportation Planner
Colorado Department of Transportation
Robin Kneich
Office of At-Large
Adam Knoff
Senior Sustainability Manager
Unico Properties at 2030 District
Jeff Lyng
Environmental Policy
Xcel Energy
Patti Mason
Executive Director
Wes Mauer
Transportation Program Manager
Colorado Energy office
Steve McCanan
Mobile Sources Program Director
Regional Air Quality Council
Jana Milford
University of Colorado at Boulder
Scott Morrissey
Director of Environmental Programs
Denver International Airport
Dawn Mullay
Director of Air Quality and Transportation
American Lung Association
Aneka Patel
Transportation Outreach Specialist
Downtown Denver Partnership
Tom Plant
Senior Policy Advisor
Center for New Energy Economy
Tom Poeling
Director of Energy Solutions
U.S. Engineering Company
Paul Scharfenberger
Director of Finance and Operations
Colorado Energy Office
Jake Schlesinger
Keys & Fox
Robert Spotts
Senior Transportation/Air Quality Planner
Denver Regional Council of Governments
Jeff Su
Executive Director
Mile High Connects
Stacy Tellinghuisen
Senior Energy/Water Policy Analyst
Western Resource Advocates
Will Toor
Director of Transportation Programs
Southwest Energy Efficiency Project
Eric Van Orden
Product Developer
Xcel Energy
James Waddel
Executive Director
Denver B-Cycle
Dace West
Senior Vice President
The Denver Foundation
Lauren Wilson
Xcel Energy
Nigel Zeid
EV Specialist
City and County of
Denver Staff
Department of Public Health
and Environment
Elizabeth Babcock
Manager Air, Water, and Climate
Thomas Herrod
Climate & GHG Inventory Lead
Sonrisa Lucero
Sustainability Strategist
Katrina Managan
Energy Efficiency Buildings Lead
Bob McDonald
Executive Director
Taylor Moellers
Sustainable Neighborhoods Program Administrator
Mike Salisbury
Transportation Energy Lead
Julie Saporito
Residential Energy Lead
Gregg Thomas
Environmental Quality Division Director
Jerry Tinianow
Chief Sustainability Officer
Community Planning and Development
David Gaspers
Principal City Planner
Jill Jennings-Golich
Deputy Director
Courtland Hyser
Principal Planner
Scott Prisco
Chief Building Official
Public Works
Kristina Evanoff
Senior Multimodal Transportation Planner
Hillary Dobos
Principal and Co-Owner
Lotus Engineering and Sustainability, LLC
Emily Artale
Principal Engineer and Co-Owner
Lotus Engineering and Sustainability, LLC
Garret Shields
Lead Technical Research Analyst
BCS, Incorporated
Natalia Swalnick
Former Manager
BCS, Incorporated

CH4 – Methane

CO2 – Carbon dioxide

GHG – Greenhouse Gas Emissions

GPC – Global Protocol Compliant greenhouse
gas inventory

MtCO2e – Metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent

Net-zero – Energy use in a building that is roughly equal to the annual amount of renewable energy created by or for that building

N2O – Nitrous oxide

O3 – Surface-level ozone

SO2 – Sulfur dioxide