Doubling density can reduce journey lengths by

But only if the transport strategy supports public
transport, walking and cycling

Limits on parking provision will help manage
car use

Thus land use controls are needed

Land use and transport need to be planned

Developers should pay for transport provision

Reallocation of road space to buses,
pedestrians and cyclists will improve conditions
for them

Limited impacts on car use

But substantially improves liveability

And can contribute to economic growth

Regulatory controls can reduce car use

By around 10% to 15% subject to enforcement

Improvements in bus service patterns and
frequencies will increase patronage and
attract some transfer from the car

Perhaps 10% of new bus users will come from

Better integration of services will reduce
transfer times and improve accessibility

Services are better managed under a
common franchise

Even if they are operated by the private sector

Awareness campaigns appear to be
successful in encouraging reduced car use and
greater use of public transport, walking and

Estimates suggest a 15% reduction in car use

But these campaigns need to be sustained

Car sharing schemes can reduce private car

Up to ten fewer private cars for every car club car

Promotion of low emission vehicles can
significantly reduce air pollution

Telecommunications may help
reduce the need to travel

Perhaps a 10% reduction in commuting

Better information can improve
efficiency and reduce travel costs

For road users and for public transport

Simpler, lower fares can increase patronage,
and attract transfer from car use

Perhaps 10% of new users will come from cars

But lower fares will require continued subsidy

Congestion charging can reduce traffic levels
and raise revenue to finance other policies

Typical traffic reductions of 10% to 20%

Which is usually the optimal reduction

Raising perhaps €100m per year for a city of 1m

But is unpopular!

Which of these results are

Land use planning and control should help reduce the need
for travel, and is essential as cities grow

Infrastructure investment will be more important, but its
effects will still be limited to the corridors in which it occurs

Effective management of the road network will be more
important, with much more than a 10% capacity increase

But needs to be coupled with controls on car and m/c use

Regulatory restrictions on car use (and ownership) will
have a greater role to play (e.g. Beijing, Shanghai)

An integrated public transport network serving the whole
city, and linked to any new rail or BRT services, will be

Perhaps an opportunity to benefit from New Mobility Services

Awareness campaigns are dependent on local culture, but
inexpensive and worth considering

Information technology will provide alternatives to travel
and significantly improve efficiency for users

Pricing is a sensitive issue, given typical low fares policies,
but can control the growth of car use

The process of policy formulation is critical

Start with objectives and strategy

Consider the full range of policy measures

Package them to achieve synergy and overcome constraints

Learn from experience elsewhere, but carefully consider

Land use planning, traffic management, public transport
management, information provision should be transferable

Infrastructure provision, awareness, pricing may require a different
approach from that in Europe

Novel policy measures (e.g. regulatory controls) may help

But evaluate their effects and disseminate the results